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final exam review

final exam review - Chapter 18-19 why is the earth green#1...

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Chapter 18-19: why is the earth green (#1) 1. top down control- the influences of consumers on ecosystems Bottom up control- influence of physical and chemical factors, such as temperatures and nutrients, on ecosystems 2. Janzen- plants are protected by physical and chemical defenses Hairston- herbivores must be limited by predators; not competition 3. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE)- carbon absorbed or released by entire ecosystem Gross primary production (GPP)- the total amount of biomass produced by the autotrophs in the ecosystem. Ecosystem respiration per land area Net primary production (NPP)- gross primary production minus respiration by primary producers 4. chemical composition of litter, temperature, and moisture Lignin (inhibits colonization of leaves by fungi)- boreal low decomposition Leaf litter- higher rate of decomposition 5. release of a lot of carbon 6. N- the main inorganic pool is in the atmosphere p- the main inorganic pool is in mineral deposits and marine sediments 7. look at notes (#1) Chapter 22: diversity and area (#2) 1. more diverse biomass allows for new niches ;unburned 2. island= .2-.6 Near island=.2 Far island=.6 Nested samples within continents= .1-.2 Possibly by community heterogeneity (mean pair wise dissimilarity): D=1- 2a/b+c 3. If number of individuals alone leads to species-area curves, then Fisher’s alpha would be constant with area, and slope (z) would be relatively low- less than .1 4. They are closer to one 5. mountain islands, lake islands, marine islands, refuges of habitat in matrix of human-modified land (agriculture, cities, etc.); humans create it with urbanization, dams, fences, etc. 6. it is the slope of the species area curve? Possibly nested slope? Understanding z 1. Equilibrium model of island biogeography- predicts stable species diversity is a function of island size and isolation MacArthur and Wilson:
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Assuming immigration rate decreases with s: Rates of immigration would be highest on new islands with no organisms, since every species that arrived at the island would be new. Then as species began to accumulate on the island, the rate of immigration would decline, since fewer and fewer arrivals would be new species. They called the point at
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