Lecture_Notes test 1

Lecture_Notes test 1 - NRM 4314 Watershed Planning...

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NRM 4314 Watershed Planning Vocabulary: Hydrology- the science dealing with the occurrence of water on the earth; its physical and chemical properties, transformations, combinations and movements especially with the course of water movement from the time of precipitation on land and movement to sea or atmosphere Cryology- the science dealing with ice and all of its forms and behaviors Hydrogeology- groundwater geology; the study of subsurface waters Hydraulics- the branch of natural science dealing with the mechanics of fluids especially water Hydrography- science of measuring and studying oceans, seas, rivers, and other waters and their marginal lands, including the fundamental elements needed for safe navigation in such areas Hydrometeorology- study of problems of meteorology related to hydrology (river forecasting, etc. ) Limnology- hydrology of lakes; study of the biological productivity of inland waters and all causal influences Oceanography- study of oceans and marine bodies of water, their currents, properties and behavior Potomology- the hydrology of surface streams and rivers Aug. 27 th :
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Rangeland- native, ecologically managed land, not mechanically managed (plow); provides forage and habitat ~72% of land area in the US falls into category of rangeland, less than 10% of the population lives there; 4% crop land:2-3% urban land In TX, water defines the physical landscape and the limits of human activity Its abundance, scarcity and quality determine the patterns of vegetation and wildlife Its availability limits population and economic growth 90% of usable water in west comes from rangelands Water Volume Distribution: Oceans 97.22% Glaciers, Ice 2.15% Ground Water 0.61% Surface Fresh water < .02% 1.3 bil acre ft. or 1.6 tril cubic m of water is carried by streams and rivers in the US 18.5 in. is the average precipitation amount in LBK Water is a cyclically renewable natural resource Minerals (gold, copper) not renewable Vegetation, crops, timber are renewable 1 molecule of water turns over every 10 days, highly cyclical Measurements: 1 acre foot = 325,851 gallons 1 cubic meter = 35.31 cubic ft 1 cubic meter = 264.15 gallons 1 acre foot = 1233.48 cubic meters Water is a Variable Resource Variable in space Variable in time Variable in quality There is a relationship between precipitation and run-off Sept. 1 st :
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Watershed management- directing a watershed; uses water, land, and processes of management Water is a raw material and finished product, and the factory for it is the watershed Objectives of Watershed Management: 1. Maintain and/or increase water yields 2. Maintain and/or improve water quality 3. Regulate timing of stream flow 4. Control excessive soil erosion and excessive run-off (not natural soil erosion and run-off) Watershed Management- the management of land for the “optimum” production of high quality water, the regulation of water yields and for maximum soil stability, along with other products of the land. Historical Development of Watershed Management:
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course NRM 4314 taught by Professor Fish during the Spring '10 term at Texas Tech.

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Lecture_Notes test 1 - NRM 4314 Watershed Planning...

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