NRM_4314_Exam_III_(Final)_Review

NRM_4314_Exam_III_(Final)_Review -...

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NRM 4314 Exam III (Final) Review Erosion Two categories of erosion  Geological or natural- process resulting from the uplift of land masses and  their subsequent reduction to base level  Man induced- erosion that exceeds the natural erosion phenomena  Soil erosion Soil erosion- process of detachment and transportation of soil materials by  erosive agents  Detachment of soil Falling raindrop Alternate wetting and drying Channel flows Freezing and thawing Trampling  Transport of soil Rain-splash Flowing water Sedimentation is the end factor in erosion  Soil properties Particle size and binding properties Sandy soils more erodible  Aggregate stability influences erodibility 
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Texture- relative proportion of various size Structure- arrangement of soil particles  Organic matter content  Surface cover/land use Plants and litter Agricultural practices  Range-forestry  Recreational use  Water erosion Forms of water erosion  Sheet erosion Internal erosion Channel erosion Mass movement  Climatic factors  Temperature Wind Humidity Seasonal changes Topographic factors Steepness of slope Length of slope Configuration of slope 
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Convex- worst Concave Aspect  Micro topography  Size of watershed  Measurement of erosion by water Raindrop splashboards Small runoff plots Watersheds Measuring pedestals/gullies Sediment depositions  Principles of water erosion control Reduce raindrop impact on the soil (interception) Reduce runoff volume and velocity (structure and cover) Increase the soil’s resistance to erosion (soil structure) Wind erosion  Conditions of significant occurrence  <400mm/yr of precipitation with natural vegetation  <800mm/yr of precipitation with exposed soil  Phases of wind erosion  Soil loosening  Initiation of movement  Transportation  Sorting 
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Abrasion Avalanching  Deposition  Forms of movement  Saltation .1-.5mm Suspension <.1mm Surface creep >.5mm Factors affecting wind erosion  Wind velocity Climate Temperature Humidity Soil Texture  Structure Topography  Land use practices  Measurements of wind erosion  Direct measurements of removal Measurement of deposition  Erosion classification for watersheds (H.G. Wilm) Class O: Stream shows no signs of erosion or excessive discharges  Banks well vegetated often overgrown with woody vegetation  No recent debris or flotsam on banks or lodged in vegetation 
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Streambed formed of shingle or cobbles covered with algae  Pools well developed  Class I: Signs of incipient erosion  Banks undercut and raw in places  Fresh sand and sediment in pools Sand-bars active  Signs of overbank flow such as debris caught on vegetation  Streamside vegetation may be gone or disappearing  Class II: Accelerated erosion evident 
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course NRM 4314 taught by Professor Fish during the Spring '10 term at Texas Tech.

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NRM_4314_Exam_III_(Final)_Review -...

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