L1 NPB 101 - Lecture 1 •  SmartSite: – ...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1 •  SmartSite: –  Syllabus –  Lec 1 Notes •  Introduc?on: Physiology –  Defini?on –  Levels of organiza?on –  Principles of Physiology •  Homeostasis •  Regula?on •  Announcements: –  None •  Reading (Recommended): –  Chapter 1 –  CAF Lectures 1 Physiology •  What is it? •  How does it work? –  Func?onal Anatomy –  Uses physical & chemical principles –  Mul?ple levels of organiza?on –  All the ?me (24/7) –  varies with ?me of day & season –  Normal physiology = Health –  Abnormal physiology (Pathophysiology) = Disease/Death •  When does it work? •  Why is it important? 2 Func?onal Anatomy ENVIRONMENT IN OUT 3 Levels of organiza?on •  Chemical  ­ Molecular •  Cellular –  cell is basic unit of life •  •  •  •  Tissue Organ System Organism Figs. 1 ­1, pg. 3; 1 ­2, pg 4 4 Principles of Physiology •  Homeostasis –  A dynamic steady ­state of the internal environment –  Not all physiological variables are homeosta?cally maintained •  Regula?on –  How we obtain Homeostasis –  Feedback •  Nega?ve (most common) or Posi?ve 5 Homeostasis •  Defined as maintenance of a rela?vely stable internal environment •  Daily varia?on (circadian rhythm) •  Input and Output in Equilibrium –  Does not mean that composi?on, temperature, and other characteris?cs are absolutely unchanging –  Dynamic Steady ­State •  Homeostasis is essen?al for survival and func?on of all cells •  Each cell contributes to maintenance of a rela?vely stable internal environment 6 Homeostasis •  Examples of factors homeosta?cally regulated include: –  Concentra?on of nutrient molecules –  Concentra?on of O2 and CO2 –  Concentra?on of waste products –  pH –  Concentra?on of water, salt, and other electrolytes –  Volume and Pressure –  Body Temperature 7 Components of the Extracelluar fluid •  Body cells are in contained in watery internal environment through which life ­sustaining exchanges are made •  Extracellular fluid (ECF) •  Intracellular fluid (ICF) –  Fluid environment in which the cells live (fluid outside the cells) –  Two components •  Plasma, inters??al fluid –  Fluid contained within all body cells Fig. 1 ­5, pg. 7 8 Homeostasis Fig. 1 ­6, pg. 10 9 Homeosta?c Regula?on •  In order to maintain homeostasis, regulatory systems must be able to: –  Detect devia?ons from normal in the internal environment that need to be held within narrow limits –  Integrate this informa?on with other relevant informa?on –  Make appropriate adjustments in order to restore factor to its desired value 10 Role of Body Systems in Homeostasis Fig. 1 ­7, pg. 12 ­13 11 Organ Systems Fig. 1 ­4ab, pg. 6 ­7 12 Homeosta?c Regula?on •  Nega?ve feedback system –  Primary type of homeosta?c control –  Opposes ini?al change –  Components •  Sensor –  Monitors level of a regulated variable regulated •  Integrator (Control Center) –  Compares sensor’s input with a set point •  Effector –  Makes a response to produce a desired effect Regulated Fig. 1 ­8a, pg. 16 13 Homeosta?c Regula?on •  Posi?ve feedback system –  Amplifies an ini?al change. –  Does not occur as oien as nega?ve feedback system. –  Example: •  Uterine contrac?ons become increasingly stronger un?l the birth of the baby. 14 Disrup?ons in Homeostasis •  Can lead to illness and death •  Pathophysiology –  Abnormal func?oning of the body associated with disease 15 Where Do we Start? Which system should we study first? •  Most func?ons involve mul?ple systems, and each system is complex. •  So, we should learn individual systems first and then build from there. •  The nervous system controls many major func?ons, and it allows us to: –  Interact with the world. –  Sense and respond to internal and external s?muli. –  Move through and act on our surroundings. •  It uses electrical signals to func?on. •  So... we will begin with the nervous system. –  If we understand those, we can more easily understand other electrical events in other ?ssues (heart, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, glands). 16 CAF Lecture Series •  Nervous System (NS) Physiology –  Cellular Neurophysiology •  •  •  •  Membrane Poten?al The Neuron Ac?on Poten?al Synapse •  Muscle Physiology •  MIDTERM 1 •  Endocrinology –  Skeletal Muscle –  Smooth Muscle –  Nervous System Organiza?on •  Central NS •  Peripheral NS •  •  •  •  •  •  –  Sensory Physiology Sensory Receptors Somatosensory Audi?on Ves?bular Vision Taste/Smell (Required Reading) –  Autonomic Nervous System –  Motor Control –  Sleep/Wake Physiology 17 ...
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