L15 NPB 101 - Lecture 15 •  SmartSite: – ...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 15 •  SmartSite: –  Lecture 15 Notes •  Review –  Motor Control II •  Announcements: –  None •  Sleep/Wake Physiology •  Reading (Recommended): –  Relevant por<ons of Chapters 5 & 8 1 REV: Motor Control •  Locomo<on: Rhythmic contrac<on of flexor ­extensor muscle pairs produced at the level of the spinal cord •  Nega<ve feedback regula<on •  Cortex: Control of fine / voluntary movement •  Cerebellum: Planning, coordina<on & posture –  Controller –  2 descending upper motor neuron pathways •  Basal Ganglia: Posture & Planning of movement •  Thalamus: Sensory relay ganglia to the cortex •  Brain Stem: Control of posture and spinal cord •  Complex integra<on of afferent informa<on and CNS processing to accomplish voluntary movement 2 –  Set Point (along with Cortex) Hypothalamus •  Brain area most involved in directly regula<ng internal environment •  Func<ons –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Controls body temperature Controls thirst and urine output Controls food intake Controls anterior pituitary hormone secre<on Produces posterior pituitary hormones Controls uterine contrac<ons and milk ejec<on Serves as a major ANS coordina<ng center Plays role in emo<onal and behavioral pa\erns Par<cipates in sleep ­wake cycle 3 Fig. 5 ­15, pg. 155 Sleep •  Func<on of sleep is unclear •  Sleep ­wake cycle –  Normal cyclic varia<on in awareness of surroundings –  Sleeping people are not consciously aware of external world •  Ac<ve process consis<ng of two types of sleep characterized by different EEG pa\erns and different behaviors –  Slow ­wave sleep –  Paradoxical, or REM sleep 4 Func<ons of Sleep Ecological/ environmental advantage Improves the quality of wakefulness Alertness Mood Cogni<ve (especially frontal lobe) func<ons Integra<on of experience; learning Resensi<za<on of receptors (e.g., norepinephrine, serotonin) •  Metabolic, inflammatory effects •  Longevity •  •  •  •  •  •  •  5 We Get Too Li\le Sleep •  1910 = 9.0 hrs/night •  1975 = 7.5 hrs/night •  2002 = 6.9 hrs/night 8 7.8 7.6 7.4 Hours 7.2 7 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 Week Days Weekends 6 National Sleep Foundation (NSF): 2002 “Sleep in America” Poll (N = 1,010 adults) Electroencephalogram (EEG) •  Extracellular current flow arising from electrical ac<vity within cerebral cortex detected by EEG •  Record of postsynap<c ac<vity in cor<cal neurons •  “Brain waves” –  Represent momentary collec<ve postsynapic poten<al ac<vity (EPSPs and IPSPs) •  3 major uses –  Clinical tool in diagnosis of cerebral dysfunc<on –  Used in legal determina<on of brain death –  Used to dis<nguish various stages of sleep 7 Overview of wake and sleep in humans Awake Drowsy Stage 1 sleep Sleep Stages by EEG Classifica<on Stage 2 sleep Stages 3 ­4 sleep REM sleep 8 Comparison of Slow ­Wave and REM (Paradoxical) Sleep Table 5 ­4, pg. 169 9 Nightly Sleep Stage Oscilla<on Fig. 5 ­23, pg. 170 10 Factors that Affect Sleep •  Age –  Increased wakefulness during sleep period –  Decreased Stage 3/4 NREM –  Earlier <ming –  Greater day<me sleepiness –  Women have longer sleep –  Have more Stage 3/4 NREM •  Sex •  Timing: Sleep is best at night! •  Illnesses, medica<ons 11 Sleep Across the Lifespan 12 Neural Control of Sleep: The VLPO Promotes Sleep A. B. Brainstem Re<cular Ac<va<on (Aler<ng/Arousal Centers) See Also Text Fig. 5 ­21, pg. 169 VLPO = Ventrolateral Hypothalamus (Sleep Ac<va<on Center) 13 Sleepiness and Sleep Depriva<on 14 Performance and Sleep Depriva<on Sleep depriva<on adversely effects func<ons mediated by prefrontal cortex, especially a\en<on and working memory, upon which most cogni<on depends. 15 Cogni<on in Sleep Depriva<on Normal Sleep MRI of Arithme<c Task Sleep Depriva<on 16 Aler<ng Effects of Caffeine in Sleepy Individuals Mul<ple Sleep Latency Test (min) Time of Day (hr) 17 Sleep Dura<on and Body Mass 18 Classifica<on of Sleep Disorders •  Disorders of Excessive Sleepiness –  DOES •  Disorders of Ini<a<ng and Maintaining Sleep –  DIMS •  Parasomnias •  Miscellaneous disorders 19 Major Sleep Disorders •  •  •  •  •  •  Insufficient sleep Insomnia Sleep Apnea Shin Work Sleep Disorder Restless Legs Syndrome Narcolepsy 20 The End (of the nervous system) (Tomorrow we start Muscle) 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2010 for the course NPB NPB 101 taught by Professor Weidner/wingfield during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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