Chapter 6 Handout - Chapter6 LEARNING 1 Lecture Outline...

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1 C h a p t e r   6 L E A R N I N G
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2 Lecture Outline Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning
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3 Learning Learning refers to an enduring change in the way an organism responds based on its experience Distinct from Drug effects (caffeine-induced jitters are not learning) Fatigue or illness Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment. Three assumptions of learning theories Responses are learned rather than innate Learning is adaptive Our experiments can uncover the laws of learning These laws will apply to animals and to humans
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4 Overview Of Conditioning
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5 Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov Type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Terminology (a.k.a. Pavlovian conditioning) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- evokes UCR w/out conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- previously neutral stimulus that through conditioning eventually evokes CR Unconditioned Response (UCR)- unlearned reaction to an UCS that occurs w/out conditioning Conditioned Response (CR)- learned reaction to a CS that occurs b/c of previous conditioning
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6 Classical Conditioning The Russian physiologist Pavlov noted that reflexive salivation in dogs could be elicited by stimuli associated with feeding Reflex: Response that is reliably elicited by a stimulus Food elicits salivation Air puff elicits eye blink Reflexive stimulus and response are unconditioned Neutral stimulus is referred to as the conditioned stimulus (CS) CS is paired with the UCS over many trials Eventually comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR: resembles the UCR) Classically conditioned responses= reflexes and are said to be elicited (b/c most are automatic).
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7 Pavlov’s Experiment
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8 Fig 6.2 – The sequence of events in classical conditioning. (a) Moving downward, this series of three panels outlines the sequence of events in classical conditioning, using Pavlov’s original demonstration as an example.
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Fig 6.1 – Classical conditioning apparatus. An experimental arrangement similar to the one depicted here (taken from Yerkes & Morgulis, 1909) has typically been used in demonstrations of classical conditioning, although Pavlov’s original setup (see inset) was quite a bit simpler. The dog is restrained in a harness. A tone is used as the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the presentation of meat powder is used as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). The tube inserted into the dog’s salivary gland allows precise measurement of its salivation response. The pen and rotating drum of paper on the left are used to maintain a continuous record of salivary flow. (Inset) The less elaborate setup that Pavlov originally used to collect saliva
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Leader during the Spring '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 6 Handout - Chapter6 LEARNING 1 Lecture Outline...

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