Chapter 7 Handout - Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists Chapter7...

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1 C h a p t e r   7 M E M O R Y Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists
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2 Lecture Outline Memory and mental representations Encoding issues Working memory Long-term memory Forgetting The Physiology of Memory Multiple Memory Systems?
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3 Human Memory: Basic Questions How does information get into memory? How is information maintained in memory? How is information pulled back out of memory?
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4 Memory Memory is the process by which we observe, store and recall information Memories may be visual, auditory, or tactile
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5 Mental Processing Mental Representations : A mental model of a stimulus or category of stimuli Sensory representations Image of a dog Sound of a gun shot Verbal representations Concept of “Freedom” Involve neural activation different from that of sensory representation Motoric representations Memories of motor actions Swinging a tennis racket
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6 Fig 7.2 – Three key processes in memory. Memory depends on three sequential processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. Some theorists have drawn an analogy between these processes and elements of information processing by computers, as depicted here. The analogies for encoding and retrieval work pretty well, but the storage analogy is somewhat misleading. When information is stored on a hard drive, it remains unchanged indefinitely and you can retrieve an exact copy. As you will learn in this chapter, memory storage is a much more dynamic process. Our memories change over time and are rough reconstructions rather than exact copies of past events.
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7 Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory The role of attention Focusing awareness Selective attention = selection of input Filtering : early or late?
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8 Fig 7.3 – Models of selective attention. Early-selection models propose that input is filtered before meaning is processed. Late-selection models hold that filtering occurs after the processing of meaning. There is evidence to support early, late, and intermediate selection, suggesting that the location of the attentional filter may not be fixed.
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9 Encoding in Long-Term Memory Requires Attention Filter early or late selection? Cocktail party phenomenon Levels of processing (shallow to deep) Structural encoding length or print of words Phonemic encoding what a word sounds like Semantic encoding the meaning of verbal input Deeper encoding = better memory How do you define “level”? Processing time = depth of processing
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10 Levels of Processing: Craik and Lockhart (1972) Incoming information processed at different levels: Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels : Structural = shallow Phenomic = intermediate Semantic = deep
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11 Fig 7.4 – Levels-of-processing theory. According to Craik and Lockhart (1972), structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding—which can be elicited by questions such as those shown on the right— involve progressively deeper levels of processing, which should result in more durable memories.
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