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Unformatted text preview: September 30, 2008 - Psychology 1101 G Outline Learning 2 ****This lecture covers Gleitman Chapter 6 page 212 end of chapter*** Operant conditioning & behaviorism Skinners Box (Operant chamber) Tool for measuring how behavior is shaped by different types of rewards (or punishments) and different ways of presenting rewards (and punishments) Skinners experiments Subjects: animals (often rats or pigeons) Apparatus: conditioning chamber (Skinner box) Procedure: shaping Shaping Guiding current behavior toward some desired behavior with reinforcements , through successive approximations Successive approximations Accomplish shaping in stages, like baby steps Reinforcer Any event that increases the likelihood that the preceding behavior will be repeated in the future Reinforces ALWAYS strengthen behavior! Positive reinforcer Introduce (+) stimulus (e.g. food, dog treats) Negative reinforcer Remove (-) stimulus (e.g. electric shock to rats and rabbits) Primary reinforcer Innately satisfying, not learned Biologically significant reinforces like food, water, escape from pain or harm...
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