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psyc-09_02 - Psyc 2 September 2008 The Brain*This lecture...

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Psyc 2 September 2008 The Brain ****This lecture covers Gleitman and Chapter 3 p. 78-100, 113-116 Lesions and brain damage Observe who have brain injuries Often must wait until death/autopsy to determine exactly what structures were damaged Hard to systematically study the entire brain (in humans) Ethics of lesioning animals for study Transcranial magnetic animals for study Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) temporarily “shuts off” part of the brain” Criteria for Neuroscience techniques for observing brain activity Choosing and evaluating: 1. What? Dynamic activity, or do we only get a still picture? What type of activity is measured (e.g. electrical, blood flow)? 2. When? Temporal resolution? 3. Where? Localize function to a specific area (i.e. spatial resolution)? 4. Invasive or non-invasive? Single cell electrode recordings Attach an electrode to one neuron and measure electrical response of that neuron to stimulus (e.g. measure response of neuron in visual cortex to bars of light a t different orientations) Invasive! But we’re only observing the response of 1 cell out of 100 billion… Electroencephalography (EEG) Array of electrodes on the scalp detect small electrical changes in the brain Excellent temporal resolution—can watch activity develop on the order of milliseconds Poor spatial resolution—hard to tell where in brain the activity emanates CT (CAT) scan: Computarized tomography Series of x-ray at different angles; computer constructs a 3D image of the brain
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