Sample_test_2 - SAMPLE
Test

#2


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Test

#2
 NOTE:
Each
exam
will
be
slightly
more
difficult
than
the
previous
one(s)
 
 How
many
structural
isomers
are
possible
for
a
substance
having
the
molecular
 formula
C4H10?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
 2
 4
 3
 11
 ANSWER:
B
 
 
 Shown
here
are
the
structures
of
glucose
and
fructose.

These
two
molecules
 differ
in
the
 a) b) c) d) e) number
of
carbon,
hydrogen,
and
oxygen
atoms
 types
of
carbon,
hydrogen,
and
oxygen
atoms
 arrangement
of
carbon,
hydrogen,
and
oxygen
atoms
 number
of
oxygen
atoms
joined
to
carbon
atoms
by
double
covalent
bonds
 answers
A,
B,
and
C
 ANSWER:
C
 
 
 
 
 A
compound
contains
hydroxyl
groups
as
its
predominant
functional
group.

 Which
of
the
following
statements
is
TRUE
concerning
this
compoumd?
 a) b) c) d) e) It
lacks
an
asymmetric
carbon,
and
it
is
probably
a
fat
or
a
lipid
 It
should
dissolve
in
water
 It
should
dissolve
in
a
nonpolar
solvent
 It
won’t
form
hydrogen
bonds
with
water
 It
is
hyerophjobic
 
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
is
the
best
description
of
a
carbonyl
group?
 
 a) an
oxygen
joined
to
a
carbon
by
a
single
covalent
bond
 b) a
nitrogen
and
two
hydrogen’s
joined
to
a
carbon
by
covalent
bonds
 c) a
carbon
joined
to
two
hydrogen’s
by
single
covalent
bonds
 d) a
sulfur
and
a
hydrogen
joined
to
a
carbon
by
covalent
bonds
 e) a
carbon
atom
joined
to
an
oxygen
by
a
double
covalent
bond
 ANSWER:
E
 
 
 What
is
the
name
of
the
functional
group
shown
above?
 a) b) c) d) e) carbonyl
 ketone
 aldehyde
 carboxyl
 hydroxyl
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
of
the
following
contains
nitrogen
in
addition
to
carbon,

oxygen
and
 hydrogen?
 a) b) c) d) e) an
alcohol
 a
monosaccharide
 a
steroid
 an
amino
acid
 a
hydrocarbon
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Amino
Acids
are
acids
because
they
always
possess
which
functional
group?
 a) b) c) d) e) amino
 carbonyl
 carboxyl
 sulfhydryl
 aldehyde
 
 ANSWER:
C
 
 
 
 
 Which
of
these
functional
groups
help
stabilize
proteins
by
forming
 covalent
bonds
within
or
between
protein
molecules?
 
 ANSWER:
E
 
 
 
 Which
molecule
(above)
has
a
carbonyl
functional
group
in
the
form
of
a
 ketone?
 ANSWER:
C
 Which
molecule
(above)
has
a
carbonyl
functional
group
in
the
form
of
an
 aldehyde?
 ANSWER:
B
 Which
molecule
(above)
can
increase
the
concentration
of
hydrogen
ions
 in
a
solution
and
is
therefore
an
organic
acid?
 ANSWER:
D
 
 
 Which
molecule
(above)
functions
to
transfer
energy
between
organic
 molecules?
 ANSWER:
D
 Which
molecule
(above)
is
an
organic
phosphate?
 ANSWER:
D
 Testosterone
is
 a) b) c) d) e) a
nucleic
acid
 a
carbohydrate
 a
protein
 a
phospholipid
 a
steroid
 ANSWER:
E
 For
this
pair
of
items,
choose
the
option
that
best
describes
their
 relationship
 (A) The
number
of
alpha
glucose
1‐4
linkages
in
cellulose
 (B) The
number
of
alpha
glucose
1‐4
linkages
in
starch
 
 a) Item
(A)
is
GREATER
than
(B)
 b) Items
(A)
is
LESS
than
(B)
 c) Item
(A)
is
exactly
or
approximately
EQUAL
to
item
(B)
 d) Item
(A)
may
stand
in
more
than
one
of
the
relationships
to
item
(B)
 e) None
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
B
 
 For
this
pair
of
items,
choose
the
option
that
best
describes
their
 relationship
 (A) The
number
of
double
bonds
in
saturated
fatty
acids
 (B) The
number
of
double
bonds
in
unsaturated
fatty
acids
 a) Item
(A)
is
GREATER
than
(B)
 b) Items
(A)
is
LESS
than
(B)
 c) Item
(A)
is
exactly
or
approximately
EQUAL
to
item
(B)
 d) Item
(A)
may
stand
in
more
than
one
of
the
relationships
to
item
(B)
 e) None
of
the
above
 
 ANSWER:
B
 
 
 For
this
pair
of
items,
choose
the
option
that
best
describes
their
relationship
 (A) The
probability
that
amino
acids
with
nonpolar
side
chains
are
 hydrophobic
 (B) The
probability
that
amino
acids
with
side
chains
containing
a
carboxyl
 group
are
hydrophobic
 
 a) Item
(A)
is
GREATER
than
(B)
 b) Items
(A)
is
LESS
than
(B)
 c) Item
(A)
is
exactly
or
approximately
EQUAL
to
item
(B)
 d) Item
(A)
may
stand
in
more
than
one
of
the
relationships
to
item
(B)
 e) None
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
A
 
 For
this
pair
of
items,
choose
the
option
that
best
describes
their
relationship
 (A) The
number
of
purines
in
the
DNA
strand
5’‐AAGAGGAGAAA‐3’
 (B) The
number
of
pyrimidines
in
the
DNA
strand
5’‐AAGAGGAGAAA‐3’
 
 a) Item
(A)
is
GREATER
than
(B)
 b) Items
(A)
is
LESS
than
(B)
 c) Item
(A)
is
exactly
or
approximately
EQUAL
to
item
(B)
 d) Item
(A)
may
stand
in
more
than
one
of
the
relationships
to
item
 (B)
 e) None
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
A
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
not
a
polymer?
 a) b) c) d) e) glucose
 starch
 cellulose
 chitin
 DNA
 ANSWER:
A
 
 What
is
the
chemical
reaction
by
which
cells
make
polymers
from
monomers?
 a) b) c) d) e) phosphodiester
linkages
 hydrolysis
 dehydration
reactions
 ionic
bonding
of
monomers
 the
formation
of
disulfide
bridges
between
momomers
 ANSWER:
C
 
 How
many
molecules
of
water
are
needed
to
completely
hydrolyze
a
polymer
that
is
 11
monomers
long?
 a) b) c) d) e) 12
 11
 10
 8
 9
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Which
of
the
following
polymers
contain
nitrogen?
 a) b) c) d) e) starch
 glycogen
 cellulose
 chitin
 amylopectin
 ANSWER:
D
 
 
 A
molecule
with
the
chemical
formula
C6H12O6
is
probably
a
 a) b) c) d) e) carbohydrate
 lipid
 monosaccharide
 A
and
B
only
 A,
B,
and
C
 ANSWER:
E
 
 
 If
2
molecules
of
the
general
type
(shown
above)
were
linked
together,
carbon
1
of
 one
molecule
to
carbon
4
of
the
other,
the
single
molecule
that
would
result
would
 be
 a) b) c) d) e) maltose
 fructose
 glucose
 galactose
 sucrose
 ANSWER:
A
 
 Humans
can
digest
starch
but
not
cellulose
because
 a) the
monomer
of
starch
is
glucose,
while
the
monomer
of
cellulose
is
 galactose
 b) humans
have
enzymes
that
can
hydrolyze
the
beta
glycosidic
linkages
of
 starch
but
not
the
alpha
glycosidic
linkages
of
cellulose
 c) humans
have
enzymes
that
can
hydrolyze
the
alpha
glycosidic
linkages
of
 starch
but
not
the
beta
glycosidic
linkages
of
cellulose
 d) humans
harbor
starch
digesting
bacteria
in
the
digestive
tract
 e) the
monomer
of
starch
is
glucose,
while
the
monomer
of
cellulose
is
maltose
 ANSWER:
C
 
 
 All
of
the
following
states
concerning
SATURATED
fats
are
true
except
 a) b) c) d) they
are
more
common
in
animals
than
in
plants
 they
have
multiple
double
bonds
in
the
carbon
chains
of
their
fatty
acids
 they
generally
solidify
at
room
temperature
 they
contain
more
hydrogen
than
saturated
fats
having
the
same
number
of
 carbon
atoms
 e) they
are
one
of
several
factors
that
contribute
to
atherosclerosis
 ANSWER:
B
 
 What
is
a
triacylglycerol?
 a) b) c) d) e) a
protein
with
tertiary
structure
 a
lipid
made
with
three
fatty
acids
and
glycerol
 a
lipid
that
makes
up
much
of
the
plasma
membrane
 a
molecule
formed
from
three
alcohols
by
dehydration
reactions
 a
carbohydrate
with
three
sugars
joined
tog4ther
by
glycosidic
linkages
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
TRUE
regarding
saturated
fatty
acids?
 a) b) c) d) e) they
are
the
predominant
fatty
acid
in
corn
oil
 they
are
have
double
bonds
between
carbon
atoms
of
the
fatty
acids
 they
are
the
principle
molecules
in
lard
and
butter
 they
are
usually
liquid
at
room
temperature
 they
are
usually
produced
by
plants
 ANSWER:
C
 
 
 Which
of
the
following
statements
is
true
regarding
the
molecule
shown
above
 a) b) c) d) e) It
is
a
saturated
fatty
acid
 A
diet
rich
in
this
molecule
may
contribute
to
atherosclerosis
 Molecules
of
this
type
are
usually
lipid
at
room
temperature
 A
and
B
only
 A,
B
and
C
 ANSWER:
D
 
 
 Which
of
the
following
statements
is
true
regarding
the
molecule
shown
above
 a) b) c) d) e) polysaccharide
 polypeptide
 saturated
fatty
acid
 triacylglycerol
 unsaturated
fatty
acid
 ANSWER:
E
 
 The
hydrogenation
of
vegetable
oil
results
in
which
of
the
following?
 a) b) c) d) e) saturated
fats
and
unsaturated
fats
with
TRANS
double
bonds
 an
increased
contribution
to
atheroscloersis
 The
oil
(fat)
being
a
solid
at
room
temperature
 A
and
C
only
 A,
B
and
C
 ANSWER:
E
 
 
 What
is
this
structure?
 a) b) c) d) e) starch
 protein
 steroid
 cellulose
 phospholipid
 ANSWER:
C
 
 All
of
the
following
contain
amino
acids
except
 a) b) c) d) e) hemoglobin
 cholesterol
 antibodies
 enzymes
 insulin
 ANSWER:
B
 
 There
are
20
different
amino
acids.

What
makes
one
amino
acid
different
from
 another?
 a) b) c) d) e) different
carboxyl
groups
attached
to
an
alpha
carbon
 different
amino
groups
attached
to
an
alpha
carbon
 different
side
chains
(R
groups)
attached
to
an
alpha
carbon
 different
alpha
cqarbons
 different
asymmetric
carbons
 ANSWER:
C
 
 
 Which
of
the
following
statements
is/are
true
regarding
the
chemical
reaction
 illustrated
above?
 a) b) c) d) e) It
is
a
hydrolysis
reaction
 It
results
in
a
peptide
bond
 It
joins
two
fatty
acids
together
 It
joins
two
monosaccharides
together
 None
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
B
 
 
 
 
 Dehydration
reactions
are
used
in
forming
which
of
the
following
compounds?
 a) b) c) d) e) triacylglycerides
 polysaccharides
 proteins
 nucleic
acids
 all
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Upon
chemical
analysis,
a
particulars
polypeptide
was
found
to
contain
100
amino
 acids.

How
many
peptide
bonds
are
present
in
this
protein?
 a) b) c) d) e) 101
 100
 99
 98
 97
 ANSWER:
C
 
 How
many
different
kinds
of
polypeptides,
each
composed
of
12
amino
acids,
could
 be
synthesized
using
the
20
common
amino
acids?
 a) b) c) d) e) 412
 1220
 125
 20
 2012
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
bonds
are
created
during
the
formation
of
the
primary
structure
of
a
protein?
 a) b) c) d) e) peptide
bonds
 hydrogen
bonds
 disulfide
bonds
 phosphodiester
bonds
 glycosidic
linkages
 ANSWER:
A
 
 What
maintains
the
secondary
structure
of
a
protein?
 a) b) c) d) e) peptide
bonds
 hydrogen
bonds
 disulfide
bonds
 ionic
bonds
 phosphodiester
bonds
 ANSWER:
B
 Which
type
of
interaction
stabilizes
the
alpha
helix
and
the
beta
pleated
sheet
 structure
of
proteins?
 a) b) c) d) e) hydrophobic
interactions
 nonpolar
covalent
bonds
 ionic
bonds
 hydrogen
bonds
 peptide
bonds
 ANSWER:
D
 The
tertiary
structure
of
a
protein
is
the
 a) b) c) d) e) bonding
together
of
several
polypeptide
chains
by
weak
bonds
 order
in
which
amino
acids
are
joined
in
a
polypeptide
chain
 unique
3‐D
shape
of
the
fully
folded
polypeptide
 organization
of
a
polypeptide
chain
into
an
alpha
helix
or
beta
pleated
sheet
 overall
protein
structure
resulting
from
the
aggregation
of
2
or
more
 subunits
 ANSWER:
C
 
 The
R
group
(side
chain)
of
the
amino
acid
serine
is
–CH2OH.

The
R
group
of
the
 amino
acid
alanine
is
–CH3.

Where
would
you
expect
to
find
these
amino
acids
in
a
 globular
protein
in
aqueous
solution?
 a) serine
would
be
inside
and
alanine
would
be
on
the
outside
of
the
globular
 protein
 b) alanine
would
be
inside
and
serine
would
be
on
the
outside
of
the
globular
 protein
 c) both
serine
and
alanine
would
be
in
the
interior
of
the
globular
protein
 d) both
serine
and
alanine
would
be
on
the
exterior
of
the
globular
protein
 e) both
serine
and
alanine
would
be
in
the
interior
and
on
the
exterior
of
the
 globular
proteins
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Altering
which
of
the
following
levels
of
structural
organization
could
change
the
 function
of
a
protein?
 a) b) c) d) e) primary
 secondary
 tertiary
 quaternary
 all
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
of
the
following
uses
the
amino
acid
sequences
of
polypeptides
to
predict
a
 protein’s
3‐D
structure?
 a) b) c) d) e) x‐ray
crystallography
 bioinformatics
 analysis
of
amino
acid
sequence
of
small
fragments
 NMR
spectroscopy
 High
speed
centrifugation
 ANSWER:
B
 The
function
of
each
protein
is
a
consequence
of
its
specific
shape.

What
is
the
term
 used
for
a
change
in
a
protein’s
3‐D
shape
(conformation)
due
to
disruption
of
 hydrogen
bonds,
disulfide
bridges,
or
ionic
bonds?
 a) b) c) d) e) hydrolysis
 stabilization
 destabilization
 renaturation
 denaturation
 ANSWER:
E
 
 What
is
the
term
used
for
a
protein
molecule
that
assists
in
the
proper
folding
of
 other
proteins?
 a) b) c) d) e) tertiary
protein
 chaperonin
 enzyme
protein
 renaturing
protein
 denaturing
protein
 ANSWER:
B
 DNAase
is
an
enzyme
that
catalyzes
the
hydrolysis
of
the
covalent
bonds
that
join
 nucleotides
together.

What
would
first
happen
to
DNA
molecules
treated
with
 DNAase?
 a) b) c) d) e) The
2
strands
of
the
double
helix
would
separate
 The
phosphodiester
bonds
between
deoxyribose
sugars
would
be
broken
 The
purines
would
be
separated
from
the
deoxyribose
sugars
 The
pyrimidines
would
be
separated
from
the
deoxyribose
sugars
 All
bases
would
be
separated
from
the
deoxyribose
sugars
 ANSWER:
B
 Which
of
the
following
statements
about
the
5’
end
of
a
polynucleotide
strand
of
 DNA
is
correct?
 a) b) c) d) e) The
5’
end
has
a
hydroxyl
group
attached
to
the
5th
carbon
of
ribose
 The
5’
end
has
a
phosphate
group
attached
to
the
5th
carbon
of
ribose
 The
5’
end
has
a
thymine
attached
to
the
5th
carbon
of
ribose
 The
5’
end
has
a
carboxyl
group
attached
to
the
5th
carbon
of
ribose
 The
5’
end
is
the
fifth
position
on
one
of
the
nitrogenous
bases
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Of
the
following
functions,
the
major
purpose
of
RNA
is
to
 a) b) c) d) e) transmit
genetic
information
to
offspring
 function
in
the
synthesis
of
protein
 make
a
copy
of
itself,
thus
ensuring
genetic
continuity
 act
as
a
pattern
or
blueprint
to
form
DNA
 form
the
genes
of
higher
organisms
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
are
nitrogenous
bases
of
the
pyrimidine
type?
 a) b) c) d) e) guanine
and
adenine
 cytosine
and
uracil
 thymine
and
guanine
 ribose
and
deoxyribose
 adenine
and
thymine
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
are
nitrogenous
bases
of
the
purine
type?
 a) b) c) d) e) cytosine
and
guanine
 guanine
and
adenine
 adenine
and
thymine
 thymine
and
uracil
 uracil
and
cytosine
 ANSWER:
B
 
 If
a
DNA
sample
were
composed
of
10%
thymine,
what
would
be
the
percentage
of
 guanine?
 a) b) c) d) e) 10
 20
 40
 80
 impossible
to
determine
 ANSWER:
C
 
 A
double‐stranded
DNA
molecule
contains
a
total
of
120
purines
and
120
 pyrimidines.

This
DNA
molecule
could
be
composed
of
 a) b) c) d) e) 120
adenine
and
120
uracil
molecules
 120
thymine
and
120
adenine
molecules
 120
cytosine
and
120
thymine
molecules
 240
adenine
and
240
cytosine
molecules
 240
guanine
and
240
thymine
molecules
 ANSWER:
B
 
 In
the
double
helix
structure
of
nucleic
acids,
cytosine
hydrogen
bonds
to
 a) b) c) d) e) deoxyribose
 ribose
 adenine
 thymine
 guanine
 ANSWER:
E
 
 If
one
strand
of
a
DNA
molecule
has
the
sequence
of
bases
5’‐ATTGCA‐3’,
the
 complementary
strand
would
have
the
sequence
 a) b) c) d) e) 5’‐AACGT‐3’
 3’‐TAACGT‐5’
 5’‐UAACGU‐3’
 3’‐UAACGU‐5’
 5’‐UGCAAU‐3’
 ANSWER:
B
 
 What
is
the
structural
feature
that
allows
DNA
to
replicate?
 a) b) c) d) e) sugar‐phosphate
backbone
 complementary
pairing
of
the
nitrogenous
bases
 disulfide
bonding
(bridging)
of
the
two
helixes
 twisting
of
the
molecule
to
form
an
alpha
helix
 three
component
structure
of
the
nucleotides
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
an
example
of
hydrolysis?
 a) reaction
of
two
monosaccharides,
forming
a
disaccharide
with
the
release
of
 water
 b) synthesis
of
two
amino
acids,
forming
a
peptide
with
the
release
of

water
 c) the
reaction
of
a
fat,
forming
glycerol
and
fatty
acids
with
the
release
of
water
 d) the
reaction
of
a
fat,
forming
glycerol
and
fatty
acids
with
the
utilization
of
 water
 e) the
synthesis
of
a
nucleotide
from
a
phosphate,
a
pentose,
and
a
nitrogenous
 base
with
the
production
of
a
molecule
of
water
 ANSWER:
D
 
 The
element
nitrogen
is
present
in
all
of
the
following
EXCEPT
 a) b) c) d) e) proteins
 nucleic
acids
 amino
acids
 DNA
 Monosaccharides
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
a
diverse
group
of
hydrophobic
molecules?
 a) b) c) d) e) carbohydrates
 lipids
 proteins
 nucleic
acids
 all
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
store
and
transmit
hereditary
information?
 a) b) c) d) e) carbohydrates
 lipids
 proteins
 nucleic
acids
 all
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
molecule
has
both
hydrophilic
and
hydrophobic
properties
AND
would
be
 found
in
membranes?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
 5
 6
 12
 14
 ANSWER:
B
 Which
of
the
following
combinations
could
be
linked
together
to
form
a
nucleotide?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1,
2
and
11
 3,
7
and
8
 5,
9,
and
10
 11,
12,
and
13
 12,
14,
and
15
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
contain(s)
an
aldehyde?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
 4
 8
 10
 1
and
4
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
molecule
is
glycerol?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
 6
 10
 14
 15
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Which
molecule
is
a
saturated
fatty
acid?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
 5
 6
 8
 9
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
is
a
purine?
 a) b) c) d) e) 2
 3
 5
 12
 13
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
act
as
building
blocks
of
polypeptides?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1,
4
and
6
 2,
7
and
8
 7,
8
and
13
 11,
12
and
13
 12,
13
and
15
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
is
an
amino
acid
with
a
hydrophobic
R
group?
 a) b) c) d) e) 3
 5
 7
 8
 12
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Which
of
the
molecules
could
be
joined
together
by
a
peptide
bond
as
a
result
of
a
 dehydration
reaction?
 a) b) c) d) e) 2
and
3
 3
and
7
 7
and
8
 8
and
9
 none
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
C
 
 A
fat
would
be
formed
as
a
result
of
a
dehydration
reaction
between
 a) b) c) d) e) one
molecule
of
9
and
three
molecules
of
10
 three
molecules
of
9
and
one
molecule
of
10
 one
molecule
of
5
and
three
molecules
of
9
 three
molecules
of
5
and
one
molecule
of
9
 one
molecule
of
5
and
three
molecules
of
10
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
molecules
could
be
joined
together
by
a
phosphodiester
type
of
 covalent
bond?
 a) b) c) d) e) 3
and
4
 3
and
8
 6
and
15
 11
and
12
 none
of
the
above;
a
phosphodiester
bond
is
not
covalent
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
is
a
pentose
sugar
found
in
RNA?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
 4
 6
 12
 none
of
the
above;
pentose
sugars
are
not
found
in
RNA
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
contains
a
glycosidic
linkage
type
of
covalent
 bond?
 a) b) c) d) e) 4
 6
 12
 15
 none
of
the
above
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
has
(have)
a
functional
group
that
frequently
is
 involved
in
maintaining
the
tertiary
structure
of
a
protein?
 a) b) c) d) e) 2
 3
 9
 11
 9
and
11
 ANSWER:
A
 
 Which
of
the
following
molecules
consists
of
a
hydrophilic
“head”
and
a
hydrophobic
 “tail”?
 a) b) c) d) e) 2
 5
 7
 9
 11
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
statements
is
FALSE?
 a) b) c) d) e) 1
and
4
could
be
joined
together
by
a
glycosidic
linkage

 9
and
10
could
be
joined
together
by
ester
bonds
 2
and
7
could
be
joined
together
to
form
a
peptide
 2,
7
and
8
could
be
joined
together
to
form
a
peptide
 14
and
15
could
be
joined
together
to
form
a
polypeptide ANSWER:
E
 
 The
presence
of
cholesterol
in
the
plasma
membranes
of
some
animals
 a) enables
the
membrane
to
stay
fluid
more
easily
when
cell
temperatures
drop
 b) enables
the
animal
to
remove
hydrogen
atomks
from
saturated
 phospholipids
 c) enables
the
animal
to
add
hydrogen
atoms
to
unsaturated
phospholipids
 d) makes
the
membrane
less
flexible,
allowing
it
to
sustain
greater
pressure
 from
within
the
cell
 e) makes
the
animal
more
susceptible
to
circulatory
disorders
 ANSWER:
A
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
one
of
the
ways
that
the
membranes
of
winter
wheat

are
 able
to
remain
fluid
when
it
is
extremely
cold?
 a) b) c) d) e) by
increasing
the
percentage
of
unsaturated
phospholipids
in
the
membrane
 by
increasing
the
percentage
of
cholesterol
molecules
in
the
membrane
 by
decreasing
the
number
of
hydrophobic
proteins
in
the
membrane
 by
co‐transport
of
glucose
and
hydrogen
 by
using
active
transport
 ANSWER:
A
 In
order
for
a
protein
to
be
an
integral
membrane
protein
it
would
have
to
be
which
 of
the
following?
 a) b) c) d) e) hydrophilic
 hydrophobic
 amphipathic
 completely
covered
with
phospholipids
 exposed
on
only
one
surface
of
the
membrane
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
a
reasonable
explanation
for
why
unsaturated
fatty
acids
 help
keep
any
membrane
more
fluid
at
lower
temperatures?
 a) the
double
bonds
from
kinks
in
the
fatty
acid
tails,
forcing
adjacent
lipids
to
 be
further
apart
 b) unsaturated
fatty
acids
have
a
higher
cholesterol
content
and
therefore
more
 cholesterol
in
membranes
 c) unsaturated
fatty
acids
permit
more
water
in
the
interior
of
the
membrane
 d) the
double
bonds
block
interaction
among
the
hydrophilic
heads
of
the
lipids
 e) the
double
bonds
result
in
shorter
fatty
acid
tails
and
thinner
membranes
 ANSWER:
A
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
true
of
integral
membrane
proteins?
 a) b) c) d) e) they
lack
tertiary
structure
 they
are
loosely
bound
to
the
surface
of
the
bilayer
 they
are
usually
transmembrane
proteins
 they
are
not
mobile
within
the
bilayer
 they
serve
only
a
structural
role
in
membranes
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Of
the
following
functions,
which
is
most
important
for
the
glycoprotein’s
and
 glycolipids
of
animal
cell
membranes?
 a) b) c) d) e) facilitated
diffusion
of
molecules
down
their
concentration
gradients
 active
transport
of
molecules
against
their
concentration
gradients
 maintaining
the
integrity
of
a
fluid
mosaic
membrane
 maintaining
membrane
fluidity
at
low
temperatures
 a
cell’s
ability
to
distinguish
one
type
of
neighboring
cell
from
another
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Which
of
these
are
not
embedded
in
the
lipid
bilayer
at
all?
 a) b) c) d) e) transmembrane
proteins
 integral
proteins
 peripheral
proteins
 integrins
 glycoprotein’s
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Which
of
these
are
attached
to
the
extracellular
matrix?
 a) b) c) d) e) transmembrane
proteins
 integral
proteins
 peripheral
proteins
 integrins
 glycoprotein’s
 ANSWER:
D
 
 Which
of
these
often
serve
as
receptors
or
cell
recognition
molecules
on
cell
 surfaces?
 a) b) c) d) e) transmembrane
proteins
 integral
proteins
 peripheral
proteins
 integrins
 glycoprotein’s
 ANSWER:
E
 
 Why
are
lipids
and
proteins
free
to
move
laterally
in
membranes?
 a) b) c) d) the
interior
of
the
membrane
is
filled
with
liquid
water
 there
are
no
covalent
bonds
between
lipid
and
protein
in
the
membrane
 hydrophilic
portions
of
the
lipids
are
in
the
interior
of
the
membrane
 there
are
only
weak
hydrophobic
interactions
in
the
interior
of
the
 membrane
 e) molecules
such
as
cellulose
can
pull
them
in
various
directions
 ANSWER:
C
 
 What
kinds
of
molecules
pass
through
a
cell
membrane
most
easily?
 a) b) c) d) e) large
and
hydrophobic
 small
and
hydrophobic
 large
and
polar
 small
and
ionic
 monosaccharides
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
is
a
characteristic
feature
of
a
carrier
protein
in
a
plasma
 membrane?
 a) b) c) d) e) it
is
a
peripheral
membrane
protein
 It
exhibits
a
specificity
for
a
particular
type
of
molecule
 It
requires
the
expenditure
of
cellular
energy
to
function
 It
works
against
diffusion
 It
has
few,
if
any,
hydrophobic
amino
acids
 ANSWER:
B
 
 Which
of
the
following
would
likely
move
through
the
lipid
bilayer
of
a
plasma
 membrane
most
rapidly?
 a) b) c) d) e) CO2
 An
amino
acid
 Glucose
 K+ 
 Starch
 ANSWER:
A
 Which
of
the
following
statements
is
CORRECT
about
diffusion?
 a) it
is
very
rapid
over
long
distances
 b) it
requires
an
expenditure
of
energy
by
the
cell
 c) it
is
a
passive
process
in
which
molecules
move
from
a
region
of
higher
 concentration
to
a
region
of
lower
concentration
 d) it
is
an
active
process
in
which
molecules
move
from
a
region
of
lower
 concentration
to
one
of
higher
concentration
 e) it
requires
integral
proteins
in
the
cell
membrane
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Water
passes
quickly
through
cell,
membranes
because
 a) b) c) d) e) the
bilayer
is
hydrophilic
 it
moves
through
hydrophobic
channels
 water
movement
is
tied
to
ATP
hydrolysis
 it
is
a
small,
polar,
charged
molecule
 it
moves
through
aquaporins
in
the
membrane
 ANSWER:
E
 
 The
solutions
in
the
two
arms
of
this
U‐tube
are
separated
by
a
membrane
that
is
 permeable
to
water
and
to
glucose
but
not
to
sucrose.

Side
A
is
half
filled
with
a
 solution
of
2M
sucrose
and
1M
glucose.
Side
B
is
half
filled
with
1M
sucrose
and
2M
 glucose.

Initially,
the
liquid
levels
on
voth
sides
are
equal.
 
 Initially,
in
terms
of
tonicity,
the
solution
in
side
A
with
respect
to
that
in
side
B
is
 a) b) c) d) e) hypotonic
 plasmolyzed
 isotonic
 saturated
 hypertonic
 ANSWER:
C
 After
the
system
reaches
equilibrium,
what
changes
are
observed?
 a) b) c) d) e) the
concentration
of
sucrose
and
glucose
are
equal
on
both
sides
 the
concentration
of
glucose
is
higher
in
side
A
than
in
side
B
 the
water
level
is
higher
in
side
A
than
in
side
B
 the
water
level
is
unchanged
 the
water
level
is
higher
in
side
B
than
in
side
A
 ANSWER:
C
 A
patient
has
a
serious
accident
and
lost
a
lot
of
blood.

In
an
attempt
to
replenish
 body
fluids,
distilled
water,
equal
to
the
volume
of
blood
lost,
is
transferred
directly
 into
one
of
his
veins.

What
will
be
the
most
probable
result
of
this
transfusion?
 a) it
will
have
no
unfavorable
effect
as
long
as
the
water
is
free
of
viruses
and
 bacteria
 b) the
patient’s
red
blood
cells
will
shrivel
up
because
the
flood
fluid
is
 hypotonic
compared
to
the
cells
 c) the
patient’s
red
blood
cells
will
swell
because
the
floods
fluid
is
hypertonic
 compared
to
the
cells
 d) the
patient’s
red
blood
cells
will
shrivel
up
because
the

blood
fluid
is
 hypertonic
compared
to
the
cells
 e) the
patient’s
red
blood
cells
will
burst
because
the
vlood
fluid
is
hypertonic
 to
the
cells
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Celery
stalks
that
are
immersed
in
fresh
water
for
several
hours
become
stiff
and
 hard.

Similar
stalks
left
in
a
salt
solution
become
limp
and
soft.

From
this
we
can
 deduce
that
the
cells
of
the
celery
stalks
are
 a) b) c) d) e) hypotonic
to
both
fresh
water
and
the
salt
solution
 hypertonic
to
both
fresh
water
and
the
salt
solution
 hypertonic
to
fresh
water
but
hypotonic
to
the
salt
solution
 hypotonic
to
fresh
water
but
hypertonic
to
the
salt
solution
 isotonic
with
fresh
water
but
hypotonic
to
the
salt
solution
 ANSWER:
C
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
solutions
in
the
arms
of
a
U‐tube
are
separated
at
the
bottom
of
the
tube

by
a
 selectively
permeable
membrane.

The
membrane
is
permeable
to
NaCl
but
not
to
 glucose.

Side
A
is
filled
with
a
solution
of
0.4M
glucose
and
0.5M
NaCl,
and
side
B
is
 filled
with
a
solution
containing
0.8M
glucose
and
0.4M
NaCl.

Initially,
the
volume
in
 both
arms
is
the
same.
 
 At
the
beginning
of
the
experiment,
 a) b) c) d) e) side
A
is
hypertonic
to
side
B
 side
A
is
hypotonic
to
side
B
 side
A
is
isotonic
to
side
B
 side
A
is
hypertonic
to
side
B
with
respect
to
glucose
 side
A
is
hypotonic
to
side
B
with
respect
to
NaCl
 ANSWER:
B
 You
are
working
on
a
team
that
is
designing
a
new
drug.

In
order
for
this
drug
to
 work,
it
must
cross
the
cell
membrane.

Which
of
the
following
would
be
a
factor
 that
determined
whether
the
molecule
enters
the
cell?
 a) b) c) d) blood
or
tissue
type
of
the
patient
 non‐polarity
of
the
drug
molecule
 lack
of
charge
on
the
drug
molecule
 similarity
of
the
drug
molecule
to
other
molecules
transported
by
the
target
 cells
 e) lipid
composition
of
the
target
cells’
plasma
membrane
 ANSWER:
D
 Which
of
the
following
membrane
activities
require
energy
from
ATP
hydrolysis?
 a) b) c) d) e) facilitated
diffusion
 movement
of
water
into
a
cell
 Na+
ions
moving
out
of
the
cell
 Movement
of
glucose
molecules
 Movement
of
water
into
a
paramecium
 ANSWER:
C
 
 Glucose
diffuses
slowly
through
artifical
phospholipid
bilayers.

The
cells
lining
the
 small
intestine,
however,
rapidly
move
large
quantities
of
glucose
from
the
glucose‐ rich
food
into
their
glucose‐poor
cytoplasm
(internal
compartment
of
the
cell).

 Using
this
information,
which
transport
mechanism
is
most
probably
functioning
in
 the
intestinal
cells?
 a) b) c) d) e) simple
diffusion
 phagocytosis
 active
transport
pumps
 exocytosis
 facilitated
diffusion
 ANSWER:
E
 
 What
is
the
voltage
across
a
membrane
called?
 a) b) c) d) e) water
potential

 chemical
gradient
 membrane
potential
 osmotic
potential
 electrochemical
gradient
 ANSWER:
C
 Ions
diffuse
across
membranes
down
their
 a) b) c) d) e) chemical
gradients
 concentration
gradients
 electrical
gradients
 electrochemical
gradients
 A
and
B
are
correct
 ANSWER:
D
 Several
seriously
epidemic
viral
diseases
of
earlier
centuries
were
then
incurable
 because
they
resulted
in
severe
dehydration
dye
t
vomiting
and
diarrhea.

Today
 they
are
usually
not
fatal
because
we
have
developed
which
of
the
following?
 a) b) c) d) e) antiviral
medications
that
are
efficient
and
work
well
with
all
viruses
 antibiotics
against
the
viruses
in
question
 intravenous
feeding
techniques
 medication
to
prevent
blood
loss
 hydrating
drinks
that
include
high
concentrations
of
salts
and
glucose
 ANSWER:
E
 
 An
organism
with
a
cell
wall
would
have
the
most
difficulty
doing
which
process?
 a) b) c) d) e) diffusion
 osmosis
 active
transport
 phagocytosis
 facilitated
diffusion
 ANSWER:
D
 
 White
blood
cells
engulf
bacteria
through
what
process?
 a) b) c) d) e) exocytosis
 phagocytosis
 pinocytosis
 osmosis
 receptor‐mediated
exocytosis
 ANSWER:
B
 
 The
difference
between
pinocytosis
and
receptor‐mediated
endocytosis
is
that
 a) pinocytosis
brings
only
water
into
the
cell,
but
receptor‐mediated
 endocytosis
brings
in
other
molecules
as
well
 b) pinocytosis
increases
the
surface
area
of
the
plasma
membvrane
whereas
 receptor‐mediated
endocytosis
decreases
the
plasma
membvrane
surface
 area
 c) pinocytosis
is
nonselective
in
the
molecules
it
brings
into
the
cell,
whereas
 receptor‐mediated
endocytosis
offers
more
selectivity
 d) pinocytosis
requires
cellular
energy,
but
receptor‐mediator
endocytosis
does
 not
 e) pinocytosis
can
concentrate
substances
from
the
extracellular
fluid,
but
 receptor‐mediated
endocytosis
cannot
 ANSWER:
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