Homework3_key-4 - Homework 3 Solutions 1 Clouds are formed by condensation of water vapor Water vapor molecules need a surface to condense on in

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Homework 3 Solutions 1. Clouds are formed by condensation of water vapor. Water vapor molecules need a surface to condense on in order to form cloud droplets. Hence, atmospheric aerosols that are water soluable are necessary for the formation of clouds. 2. The fog formed is radiation fog. It is produced by Earth±s radiational cooling and forms best on clear and calm nights. The radiational cooling causes a temperature inversion, in which there is cooler air near the surface and warmer air above. When the temperature cools to the dew point temperature in the inversion and the relative humidity is 100%, condensation occurs and a fog forms. The fog typically persists until there is enough heating of the ground to break the inversion. In California during the wintertime sometimes the inversion and associated Tule fog persists for days and days because the sunlight is too weak to break the inversion, thus making winters in the Central and San Joaquin Valleys very foggy and miserable. 3. See the descriptions of the clouds within the cloud lecture. 4. a) Infrared cloud images are used to distinguish between high and low clouds. The typical grayscale color scheme in infrared satellite imagery makes warm temperatures appear darker and cold temperatures appear lighter. As the tops of low clouds are warmer than those of high clouds, warm low clouds are appear darker and the cold high clouds lighter. b) Visible cloud images are used to distinguish thick clouds from thin clouds. Because thick clouds have a higher reflectivity than thin clouds, they appear brighter. 5. An adiabatic process is one in which there is no exchange of heat with the surrounding environment. For a rising, unsaturated air parcel, as the parcel of air rises it will expand, due to the decrease in pressure of surrounding air, and cool. The rate of cooling is approximately 10 degrees Celsius per kilometer and this is referred to as the dry adiabatic lapse rate. For a rising saturated air parcel, in which the relative humidity is 100%, water vapor will begin to condense, adding heat to the surrounding environment. The heat added during the condensation process offsets some of the cooling due to expansion, so the rate of cooling is approximately 6 degrees Celsius per kilometer, and this is referred to as the moist adiabatic lapse rate. 6. Clouds that occur in stable atmospheres are generally the stratus Ͳ type clouds, which are flat and spread out; clouds that occur in unstable atmospheres are the cumuliform Ͳ type clouds, which are puffy and vertically developed. The greater the amount of instability, the more vertically developed the cloud will
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course NATS 101 taught by Professor Allister during the Fall '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Homework3_key-4 - Homework 3 Solutions 1 Clouds are formed by condensation of water vapor Water vapor molecules need a surface to condense on in

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