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Unformatted text preview: 1 Psyc 4070 (2) February 18, 2008 Chapter 6 Discussion on Piaget- same 4 stages in order- invariant sequence- stages differ qualitatively - go up a stage only when mature enough, & had the right experiences- what are the right experiences? o thinks most normal environments will allow you to get what you need (set of experiences: may differ per person)- concrete vs. formal operations- might be different for babies, most “normal environments” suffice- without relevant experiences can’t reach highest stage Chapter 7 Physical Developmental Preschool (2-6yrs old)- most societies don’t school til 6- preschoolers still learning motor skills (e.g. eating/ dressing) & how to uses paper and pencil- brains haven’t “baked” enough to start regular school- preschoolers eyes not ready for lengthy, close work o need both active play & rest o still mastering their bodies o nap time & juice time- learning modifies the brain cells & behavior o a process continuing through life o brain will change in response to experience- experiences constantly changes brain circuitry o this brain plasticity is linked to memory o brain plasticity, & behavior influenced by pre and post natal experiences, drugs, hormones, maturation, diet, disease, & stress o understanding how these factors effect the brain help us understand normal & abnormal development The Neuron- parts of the neuron o dendrites: branchlike parts, receive messages from other neurons o nucleus o soma: cell body, controls metabolism o axon: tree trunk like structure, carries messages to other cells 2 an electrochemical event o end bulb: at the end of axons release transmitter substance after an action potential o neurons communicate through the release of chemicals, do not interact through one another- neurons transmit electrochemical messages when dendrites are stimulated by other neurons- synaptic gap: five millionths of an inch, neurotransmitters released into gap excite/ inhibit next neuron- most psychoactive drugs mimic neurotransmitters (ex: paxel: serotonin reuptake prohibitor ; antidepressant)- learning- alters synaptic efficiency- increases nerve impulse speed 1 st months/ years-- major brain growth spurts particularly in cortex (ex: cortical dendrites increase (5x) in 1 st 2yrs- transient exuberance) Prenatal/ Infant- neurogenesis and migration doesn’t end brain growth Newborn/ Preschooler- lacks neural networks for thinking in older people Synaptogenesis: synaptic connection grow b/t neurons- once neurons are at final destinations, axons & dendrites develop, linking to other neurons- only weeks after neurogenesis, rapid synaptogenesis starts, tapers off in some regions only after 3yrs of age- early synaptogenesis- genetically controlled and haphazard o many more synapses created than needed not very selective SO, baby has limited cognitive skills, but great flexibility Final sculpting is done by experiences, not genes All experiences stimulate neural networks- synapses repeatedly activated by experience (ex: classical music) become more...
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2010 for the course PSYC 4070 taught by Professor Rosenthal during the Spring '10 term at LSU.
- Spring '10
- Developmental Psychology