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PSYC 4070 (3) - Copy

PSYC 4070 (3) - Copy - 1 PSYC 4070(3 Cognitive Development...

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1 PSYC 4070 (3) March 10, 2008 Cognitive Development in Piaget’s Formal Stage, Adolescent thought … Formal operational intelligence - 12 + years old may not be fully attained until 18-22 - Can think logically about hypothetical/ abstract things - Think about the “form” of statements and ideas rather than the concrete things the words represent Concrete reasoners will try to solve many problems by trial and error Has to solve in real world Formal reasoners will hypothesize and mentally consider The results Can solve problems in head Systematically generate hypotheses, test them, bawsed upon feedback, generate new and better ones Formal test of formal operation reasoning – combination of liquids problem (4 beaker problem) Concrete reasoners are weak on a capacity called interpropositional thinking – they cannot compare several hypotheses to see if they are logically consistent with each other - They have difficulty generating and thinking about hypotheses - To a concrete reasoned reality is the only possibility - To a formal – reality is one of the many possibilities Later in life, Piaget moved away from a belief in rigid timelines – (the necessity of the same changes always occurring in the same order) - At first Piaget thought that all normal young adults would develop formal operations. - But they didn’t – there are still some adults out there who are concrete - Why not? Hypotheses are: o Formal reasoning is environmentally dependent (Nurture explanation) o Formal reasoning is a specific aptitude that only some people have (Nature explanation) Missed March 24, 2008 Formal operations can be both good and bad. Piaget – adolescents so focused on their thinking they appear more egocentric David Elkind – two types of egocentrism in adolescents – 1) The imaginary audience – adolescent feels: constantly on stage. Everyone is watching and critical 2) Personal fable – a belief in the uniqueness of oneself and one’s thinking. Elkind thought the “invincibility fable” might be part of the “personal fable”.
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2 Invincibility fable – an adolescent’s belief that though they engage in risky behavior they can’t be harmed 3) Elkind – invincibility fable declines in late adolescence as teens lose idealism, but data don’t support this – adolescents see just as many dangers in risky acts as middle-aged adults. Adolescents take risks because they want excitement, not because they feel invulnerable 4) Adolescent egocentrism is less due to formal thinking, and more due to: advanced social perspective-taking – the ability to understand how others perceive you. 5) Viewed this way, adolescent egocentrism is not very egocentric at all. Cognitive Development -Theory #1 Piaget’s theory was dominant, but parts are wrong. There are other modern theories of cognitive development -Theory #2 – Information Processing Theory – changes in how we take in, use and store info cause cognitive development. Key is – memory improves. Ability to organize/manipulate information changes quantitatively .
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PSYC 4070 (3) - Copy - 1 PSYC 4070(3 Cognitive Development...

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