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Unit02s_2 - Chem 003 Fall 2009 Blackboard...

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1 Chem 003 – Fall 2009 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu Office hours: MW 3:10-3:55 PM, 1957 E street, room 213 or by appointment Ozone Concentration (ppm) (8-hour average, unless noted) Air Quality Index Values Air Quality Descriptor 0.0 to 0.064 0 to 50 Good 0.065 to 0.084 51 to 100 Moderate 0.085 to 0.104 101 to 150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 0.105 to 0.124 151 to 200 Unhealthy 0.125 (8-hr) to 0.404 (1-hr) 201 to 300 Very Unhealthy NO and NO 2 • collectively referred to as NO x • largely produced by automobiles • major contributors to photochemical smog ( smog) Catalytic converters in automobiles: Designed to convert carbon monoxide (CO) into CO 2 and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) into N 2 . Photochemical smog
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2 The reactions important to the formation of photochemical smog are: NO 2 NO + O light nitrogen dioxide nitric oxide atomic oxygen N 2 + O 2 2 NO (nitric oxide) 2 NO + O 2 2 NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) O + O 2 O 3 molecular oxygen ozone Health effects of Ozone • Irritates the respiratory system. • Reduces lung function. • Aggravates asthma. • Inflames and damages the lining of the lung. Plant and Ecosystem Damage • Interferes with the ability of plants to produce and store food. • Damages the leaves of trees and other plants. • Reduces crop and forest yields and increases plant vulnerability to disease, pests, and harsh weather. The EPA Website: http://www.epa.gov http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health/smog1.html
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3 Biological sensitivity to UV Radiation
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4 Highly energetic photons break chemical bonds UV-B (280-320 nm) Damage to nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) • Skin cancer • Weakening of the immune system • Eye damage UV-A (320-400 nm) • Premature wrinkling and aging of skin • Skin cancer Effects on Plants, Marine Ecosystems, Crops, Biogeochemical Cycles, and Materials
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