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Unit03s_2 - Chem 003 Fall 2009 Global Warming Matter and...

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1 Global Warming Chem 003 – Fall 2009 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu Office hours: MW 3:10 – 3:55 PM, room 213 1957 E Street and by appointment • Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, French mathematician (1800): First one introducing the concept of gases trapping the energy of the Sun ( greenhouse effect ). • John Tyndall, British scientist (1860): demonstrates experimentally that CO 2 and H 2 O absorb heat radiation Matter and Radiation First we need to estimate the temperature and the concentration of CO 2 in the past and look if there ʼ s any correlation. Temperature : from the isotopic ratio 2 H/ 1 H in ice cores in Antarctica. Isotopes: elements with the same atomic number, but different mass number. Is there any relationship between the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere and the temperature of the Earth? Water containing 1 H evaporates faster than water containing 2 H, and that shows on the isotopic ratio in snow. 1 H 1 1 H 2 Amount of CO 2 : determined by measuring CO 2 concentration in trapped air bubbles in ice.
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2 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/antarctica/vostok/vostok_data.html Distribution of energy in solar radiation above the Earth ʼ s atmosphere
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3 Symmetric stretching Asymmetric stretching Bending Bending Molecular vibrations O O C O O C O O C O O C Infrared spectrum of carbon dioxide Wavenumber = 1/ λ
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4 Earth Atmosphere Radiative Balance of the Earth Solar radiation Reflected by the atmosphere Absorbed by the atmosphere Absorbed by the Earth Irradiated by the atmosphere Irradiated by the Earth Greenhouse Effect The trapping of a fraction of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth towards the atmosphere. Without this effect, the average temperature on the Earth’s surface would be -15˚C. The Greenhouse Effect Sun Greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O) trap 84% of the escaping energy. A steady-state is reached. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Climate Change Report 2007
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6 Carbon Cycle Human contributions to atmospheric CO 2
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8 % increase 32 157 11 - Trees help to maintain atmospheric levels of CO 2 by using it in photosynthesis . - Burning trees after they are cut adds CO 2 to the atmosphere. 11 bmt of CO 2 per year (2 bmt of C/yr) are released into the atmosphere by burning trees.
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