Unit06s_2

Unit06s_2 - Chem 003 Fall 2009 ACID RAIN Atmospheric and...

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1 Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry - Air quality Localized (in cities) - Ozone Depletion Global - Greenhouse Effect Global - Acid Rain Regional Acid deposition:- acid rain - acid snow - fog - dry deposition (acidic solids) ACID RAIN Chem 003 – Fall 2009 Blackboard: http://blackboard.gwu.edu OfFce Hours: MW 3:10-3:55 PM, 1957 E street, room 213 or by appointment ACID: Substance that releases _____________, __ , in aqueous ( aq ) solution Ex: H Cl ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) hydrogen hydrogen chloride chloride ion ion More rigorously: H Cl ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) hydronium ion Acids and Bases
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2 BASE: Substance that accepts hydrogen ions (and produces ___________, ____ , in aqueous solution) Ex: NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( aq ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) ammonia ammonium hydroxide ion ion NaOH ( aq ) Na + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) sodium sodium hydroxide ion Neutralization: Reaction between and acid and a base to form a salt and water H Cl ( aq ) + Na OH ( aq ) NaCl ( aq ) + HOH ( l ) Acids and Bases Mass, Mole, and Avogadro 6 Carbon C 12.011 8 Oxygen O 15.999 Atomic mass: mass, in grams, of the same number of atoms that are found in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 Avogadro ʼ s number: number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12 (N A = 6.02 x 10 23 ) Mole: an Avogadro ʼ s number of anything Molar mass: the mass of one Avogadro ʼ s number of whatever particles are speciFed Molar mass CO 2 =
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Concentration and pH Concentration: amount of a substance dissolved in a given volume of a solvent Molarity ( M ): number of moles of a substance present in one liter of solution In pure water, the molarities of H + and OH - are equal: M H + = M OH - = 0.0000001 M = 1.0 x 10 -7 M The addition of an acid or a base to water, changes these concentrations. In acidic solutions, M H + > 1.0 x 10 -7 M In a neutral solution, M H + = 1.0 x 10 -7 M In basic solutions, M H + < 1.0 x 10 -7 M H + molarities can range from more than 1.0 mol/L to less than 0.00000000000001 moles/L It ʼ s more convenient to use a logarithmic scale If M H + > 10 -7 M pH < 7.00 ______ solution If M H + = 10
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2010 for the course CHEM 003 taught by Professor Marting.zysmilich during the Fall '06 term at GWU.

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Unit06s_2 - Chem 003 Fall 2009 ACID RAIN Atmospheric and...

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