Gen Psyc 05 - Mind Consciousness and Dreamimg BLACKBOARD

Gen Psyc 05 - Mind Consciousness and Dreamimg BLACKBOARD -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 The Mind, Consciousness, and Alternate States • • • • • The Contents of Consciousness The Function of Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Altered States of Consciousness Mind-Altering Drugs Contents of Consciousness • Consciousness – Awareness of internal events and of the external environment • Self-awareness – Top level of consciousness Contents of Consciousness • Nonconscious processes – Preconscious Memories • Can be called into consciousness when necessary – Unattended Information – Unconscious Studying the Contents of Consciousness • Think-aloud Protocols – Reports of mental processes and strategies • Experience-sampling Method – Participants record thoughts and feelings when signaled to do so Functions of Consciousness • Aiding Survival – Restrictive function – Selective storage function – Planning function • Personal Construction of Reality – Your unique interpretation of a current situation • Cultural Construction of Reality – Ways of thinking about the world that are shared by most members of a particular group Sleep and Dreams • Circadian Rhythm – Consistent pattern of cyclical body activities determined by internal clock – Twenty-four to twenty-five hours • Jet Lag – Fatigue, irresistible sleepiness, and unusual sleep-wake cycles that result when the internal circadian rhythm is out of phase with the temporal environment Stages of sleep • Alert wakefulness – Extremely active brain – Beta waves: desynchronized waves • short and frequent • Drowsiness – Increase in synchrony--alpha waves • Stage 1 sleep – Easily aroused – Slower synchronized waves--theta waves 8 Electrical brain activity during Sleep 9 • Stage 2 sleep Stages of sleep – Less sensitive to external stimulation – Theta waves + occasional special patterns • Sleep spindles: brief bursts of activity • K-complexes: large slow waves • Stage 3 and 4 sleep – Deep sleep – Large, slow synchronized waves • delta waves 10 Electrical brain activity during Sleep 11 Stages of sleep • REM sleep (paradoxical sleep) – Rapid eye movements – Beta waves & extreme brain activity – Bodily arousal (breathing, heart rate, BP) – Body paralysis – High likelihood of dreaming – As night progresses, more REM less deep sleep – REM rebound when not enough sleep 12 Stages of sleep over the course of the night 13 Hours of Sleep 14 Sleep by Age 15 Why do we sleep? • Conservation – Sleep evolved because it allowed animals to conserve energy • Restoration – Sleep (specifically Non-REM) occurs to provide an opportunity to repair and restore brain cells Why do we sleep? • Facilitation of learning – Allows strengthening of neural connections – Consolidation of learning • Circadian rhythm theory – “circa diem” = around a day, 24 hour cycle – Allows animals to remain inactive during vulnerable periods – “Free running” time, about 25 hours 17 The Cave Dweller Experiment • 27 year old Stefania Follini lived in an underground cave in New Mexico from On January 13 to May 22, 1989. • All cues to passage of time eliminated • “Free running time” about 25 hours • Ms. Follini’s days shifted to 28 hour cycle • 6 weeks in, woke up one day, didn’t go back to sleep for 24 hours, went into 44 hour cycle. • Time perception had sped up: 7 hours felt like 1 18 Neural mechanisms of Sleep • Endocrine system – Suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus, the “biological clock” – SCN receives signals about light from retina – SCN signals pineal gland to secrete melatonin (a hormone) – Melatonin helps induce sleep, recover from jet lag 19 Pineal gland 20 Reticular activating system (RAS) • Locus coeruleus (in RAS) – sends norepinephrine to many parts of brain during wakefulness • Raphe nuclei (in RAS) – sends serotonin to cortex when awake • Preoptic area in forebrain – inhibitory signals to RAS – reduce arousal & induce sleep 21 Activity in the Locus Coeruleus 22 Sleep Disorders • During REM sleep, neurons in the pons signal the spinal cord to block movement • REM behavior disorder – Stroke damage to brainstem – Loss of usual paralysis during REM sleep – More violent than normal sleepwalking • Cataplexy – REM muscle paralysis while awake – Sudden loss of muscle control 23 Sleep Disorders • Sleepwalking (somnambulism) – Sleepwalking in which people leave their beds and wander while still remaining asleep – Occurs during non-REM, stage 3 or 4 sleep – Common in young children – Runs in families • Sleeptalking – Common & harmless – REM and non-REM sleep 24 Sleep Disorders • Night terrors – Qualities: –: – Much more common in young children • Insomnia – Chronic inability to sleep • Narcolepsy – Irresistible compulsion to sleep • Sleep Apnea – Stop breathing while asleep • Dreams Dreaming – Altered state of reality – Images and fantasies confused with reality • REM dreams – Content: – Activation of brain areas associated with motivation, emotion, & reward • Non-REM dreams – Content: 26 VIDEO • Scientific American: “What’s in a Dream?” 27 • Freudian Dream Analysis – Latent content – Manifest content – Dream work Dreams • Non-Western Approaches – Shamans • Physiological Theories – Activation-synthesis model Dreams • Nightmares – When a dream is frightening and makes an individual feel helpless or out of control Altered States of Consciousness • Lucid Dreaming – Conscious awareness of dreaming is a learnable skill • Hypnosis – – – – – Altered state of awareness Hypnotic induction Hypnotizability Hypnotic analgesia Autohypnosis Why do we Dream? • Manifest vs. latent content – Freud’s theory of dream symbolism • Activation-synthesis hypothesis – Dreams are random neuronal firings that the brain tries to make sense of • Evolved threat rehearsal strategies – Activation of limbic structures – Allow rehearsal of responses to threats 31 Why do we Dream? • Francis Crick: Dreams are a neural “spring cleaning” • Journal Science (January 2, 2003) dreams test whether brain has had enough sleep. If so, it wakes you up. • Organizes memory by emotional significance – heavy hippocampus activity • Creativity and Dreams 32 SCIENCE Notebook Monday, January 26, 2004; Page A08 Sleep Found Vital to Creativity It is a common experience. You struggle with a problem, but the solution remains elusive. Then, after a good night's sleep, the answer suddenly pops into your head in a seemingly spontaneous eureka moment. Now, a team of German scientists has produced evidence supporting the notion that a decent night of rest is crucial for getting key insights that can allow you to untangle a knotty question. 33 MSNBC.com Where dreams are made Updated: 9:48 p.m. ET Sept. 10, 2004 Stroke victim's case may help pinpoint crucial area of brain, scientists say WASHINGTON ­ A stroke that robbed a woman of her dreams may help pinpoint where and how dreams are born in the brain, scientists said on Friday. They found the stroke had damaged areas deep in the back half of the brain, which is involved in the visual processing of faces and landmarks. Writing in the Annals of Neurology, they said the finding suggests that this area was crucial for dreams. “How dreams are generated, and what purpose they might serve, are completely open questions at this point,” said Dr. Claudio Bassetti, a neurologist at the University Hospital of Zurich in Switzerland, in a statement. “These results describe for the first time in detail the extent of lesion necessary to produce loss of dreaming in the absence of other neurological deficits. As such, they offer a target for further study of the localization of dreaming,” added Bassetti, who led the study. 34 Deja-Vu Bartelomi et al (2004) • Stimulated various brain areas in presurgical patients (N=24) including – – – – Hippocampus Amygdala Perirhinal Cortex (PC) Entorhinal Cortex (EC) 35 • EC stimulation induced post operative deja-vu EC delineated by area #28 below 36 Deja-Vu (all over again) • Adachi et al (2003) interviewed 386 healthy adults aged 18-69 about memory, sleep, dreams, and deja-vu experiences • 76% had experienced deja-vu • Deja-vu experience was related to – – – – – Younger age Higher education Ability to remember dreams Good overall memory function Precognitive dreaming (dreams that predict future events) 37 Remembering Dreams 38 Setting up a Dream Diary • Keep a notebook by the bed: Record them at night when you wake up from a dream • Record how you felt: Come up with 3 adjectives that describe the emotions • Review Your Diary: Can help better understand repetitive dreams • Note your dream “Symbols”: the meaning of things like the house you grew up in. They’re different for everyone and shift in meaning over time. From MSNBC 7/17/98 39 Altered States of Consciousness •Meditation –Designed to enhance self-knowledge and wellbeing through reduced self-awareness •Religious Ecstasy –Religious experiences Altered States of Consciousness •Meditation –Designed to enhance self-knowledge and wellbeing through reduced self-awareness •Religious Ecstasy –Religious experiences Mind-Altering Drugs • Psychoactive Drugs – Chemicals that change conscious awareness of reality • Tolerance – Continued use requires greater dosage • Physiological Dependence – Body becomes adjusted to and dependent on a drug – Outcome of tolerance and dependence is addiction Mind-Altering Drugs • Addiction – Body requires drug in order to function without a reaction – Individual suffers painful withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not present • Psychological Dependence – Craving for a drug Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs • Hallucinogens (psychedelics) – – – – Mescaline Psilocybin LSD PCP Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs • Cannabis – THC – Hashish – Marijuana Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs • Opiates – Heroin – Morphine Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs • Depressants – Barbiturates – Alcohol • Stimulants – Cocaine – Caffeine – Nicotine ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2010 for the course PSYC 75733 taught by Professor Forssell during the Fall '10 term at GWU.

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Gen Psyc 05 - Mind Consciousness and Dreamimg BLACKBOARD -...

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