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Gen Psyc 06 - Learning BLACKBOARD

Gen Psyc 06 - Learning BLACKBOARD - CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER LEARNING AND LEARNING BEHAVIOR BEHAVIOR Overview The Study of Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Classical Predictable Signals Predictable Operant Conditioning: Learning About Operant Consequences Consequences Biology and Learning Cognitive Influences on Learning 2 What is Learning? Learning defined – Process based on experience that results in a Process relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral patterns behavioral Habituation 3 Behaviorism Ivan P. Pavlov – Classical conditioning model John Watson – Father of American behaviorism B.F. Skinner – Operant conditioning model The Behaviorism Movement Behavioral Analysis 4 How Did the Behavioral Study How of Learning Develop? of John Watson’s “Behaviorism” rejected the John Freudian and Structuralist focus on mental events and verbal reports events “Behaviorism” promoted objective observation Behaviorism” of overt behavior as the only valid indicator of psychological activity psychological Human infants as Tabula Rasa Human Tabula 5 Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning – A basic form of learning in which one basic stimulus predicts the occurrence of another stimulus – Behavior comes to be elicited by a stimulus Behavior that has acquired its power through an association with a biologically significant stimulus stimulus 6 Classical Conditioning Terminology – Unconditioned stimulus (US) – Unconditioned response (UR) – Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Conditioned response (CR) 7 Classical Conditioning Study of Reflexes Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – Any stimulus that naturally elicits a behavior Unconditioned Response (UCR) – The behavior elicited by the UCS 8 Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A neutral stimulus that is able to elicit neutral behavior only after association with the UCS Conditioned Response (CR) Conditioned – The behavior elicited to the CS 9 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – Nobel Peace prize recipient for his research Nobel in medical physiology Pavlov’s classic experiment – Pavlov’s apparatus Pavlov’s – Learning a new Learning stimulus-response association 10 10 Pavlov’s apparatus 11 11 12 12 Little Albert Demonstration by John Watson Demonstration Little boy conditioned to fear white rat Little Generalized to other furry objects VIDEO 13 13 Processes of Conditioning Acquisition – The process by which the CR is first elicited – Timing is critical CS and UCS must be presented closely enough in CS time to be perceived as being related time 14 14 Processes of Conditioning Extinction – The weakening of a CR as a result of The absence of CS and UCS absence Spontaneous Recovery – The sudden reappearance of the CR after a The rest period without further exposure to the UCS UCS 15 15 Processes of Conditioning Stimulus Generalization – Automatic extension of conditioned Automatic responding to similar stimuli responding Stimuli Discrimination – Learning to respond differently to stimuli that Learning differ from the CS differ 16 16 Acquisition Acquisition Robert Rescorla Robert – A neutral stimulus will become an effective CS neutral only if it is informative and reliably predicts the UCS UCS 17 17 18 18 Applications of Classical Applications Conditioning Conditioning Emotions and preferences Emotions Learning to be a drug addict Harnessing classical conditioning – Immune system 19 19 Phobias and addictions have Phobias learned components learned Phobia – Acquired fears out of Acquired proportion to real threat proportion Treatment – Counterconditioning – Systematic Desensitization Drug addiction – Environmental cues can act as Environmental CS for drug use CS 20 20 Drug dependence has learned Drug and biological components and Physical dependence – “addiction” – Often related to development of tolerance – Associated with withdrawal experience Psychological dependence – Habitual and compulsive substance Habitual use despite consequences use 21 21 Learned and biological Learned components components of drug dependence Avoidance of withdrawal experience is Avoidance negatively reinforcing negatively Good feelings associated with drug use Good is positively reinforcing positively The mesolimbic dopamine system The mesolimbic is the major brain system involved in positive reinforcement in 22 22 Dopamine signals reward Reward pathway – The mesolimbic dopamine system The mesolimbic – Links forebrain and midbrain Links structures structures – Leads to release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens nucleus Dopamine release is involved in Dopamine both natural and learned pleasurable experiences pleasurable 23 23 The mesolimbic dopamine The pathway pathway 24 24 Classical conditioning: Not just association Biological preparedness – Animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear certain objects – Some objects more easily become targets Some of phobias of Garcia & Koelling (1966) – Poisoned food leads to one trial learning 25 25 Operant Conditioning Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Classical Operant conditioning – A llearning process in which the earning consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future in In CC, individuals respond to CS or US In OC, individuals act (“operate”) to obtain In a reward 26 26 Operant Conditioning Law of Effect Law –Power of a stimulus to evoke a response is Power strengthened when the response is followed by a reward and weakened when it is not followed by a reward by 27 27 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning defined – Learning in which the probability of a Learning response is changed by a change in its consequences consequences 28 28 29 29 Types of O.C. Stimuli Reinforcement increases behavior Punishment decreases behavior Thorndike’s law of effect – Behaviors with satisfying Behaviors consequences will be repeated; – Those with annoying consequences Those will be less likely to occur will 30 30 Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement can be Positive or Negative can “Positive” means presenting or adding Positive” presenting a stimulus stimulus “Negative” means removing a Negative” removing stimulus stimulus 31 31 Overview of negative and positive Overview reinforcement and punishment reinforcement 32 32 Reinforcement can be Positive or Negative can Positive reinforcement – Pleasurable stimulus presented presented – Probability of target behavior increases Probability increases Negative reinforcement – Unpleasant stimulus removed removed – Probability of target behavior increases Probability increases 33 33 Punishment can be Positive or Negative can Positive punishment – Unpleasant stimulus presented Unpleasant presented – Probability of target behavior decreases Probability decreases Negative punishment – Pleasurable stimulus removed removed – Probability of target behavior decreases Probability decreases 34 34 Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Contingency – A consistent relationship between a response consistent and the changes in the environment that it produces produces 35 35 Reinforcement Contingencies Reinforcer – Any stimulus that when made contingent on a Any behavior increases the probability of that behavior over time behavior Reinforcement 36 36 Reinforcement Contingencies Punisher – Any stimulus that when made contingent on a Any behavior decreases the probability of that behavior over time behavior Punishment 37 37 Reinforcement Contingencies Using Reinforcement Contingencies – How can you define the behavior that you How would like to reinforce or eliminate? would – How can you define the contexts in which a How behavior is appropriate or inappropriate? behavior – Have you unknowingly been reinforcing Have some behaviors? some 38 38 Properties of Reinforcers Conditioned Reinforcers – Primary reinforcers Biologically determined – Token economies Probable activities as positive reinforcers – Premack principle 39 39 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous vs. partial reinforcement Continuous reinforcement creates fast learning Continuous but is rare in the real world but Partial reinforcement is more common, in that most behavior is reinforced only intermittently most Partial-reinforcement extinction effect – Behavior is more resistant to extinction under partial Behavior schedules than under continuous schedules schedules 40 40 Schedules of Reinforcement Partial-reinforcement extinction effect – Behavior is more resistant to extinction under Behavior partial schedules than under continuous schedules schedules Partial reinforcement: ratio vs. interval Partial ratio – Ratio (units of behavior) – faster learning – Interval (units of time) – slower learning Partial reinforcement: fixed vs. variable Partial fixed – Fixed (invariant) – Variable (unpredictable) 41 41 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule Variable-ratio (VR) schedule Fixed-interval (FI) schedule Variable-interval (VI) schedule 42 42 Reinforcement Schedules 43 43 Response rate for Response different schedules of reinforcement reinforcement 44 44 Shaping Shaping by Successive Approximations – Reinforcing responses that successively Reinforcing approximate the desired response approximate Cumulative steps result in complex Cumulative behaviors behaviors “Surfing Raccoons” Surfing “Toilet-using cats” “Toilet-using 45 45 Operant vs. Classical Conditioning After conditioning has occurred, either a After stimulus results in a behavior, OR a behavior is enacted in expectation of a stimulus/reward is Classical Conditioning Classical – Paired Stimuli Reactive Behavior Paired Stimuli Behavior Operant Conditioning Operant – Proactive Behavior Reward Stimulus Proactive Behavior Stimulus 46 46 Biology of Learning Biological Constraints on Learning Instinctual Drift Taste-aversion Learning 47 47 Biology influences operant Biology conditioning conditioning Biological constraints – Old view: all behavior shaped by all reinforcement (“classic behaviorism”) reinforcement – Current view: harder to learn behaviors that harder counter evolutionary adaptations counter – Most effective when behavior and Most reinforcement are similar to predispositions reinforcement 48 48 Biology and Cognition Influence Operant Conditioning Operant The original behaviorist model The overlooked biological constraints on what can be learned what Tolman argued that reinforcement Tolman affects performance more than learning learning His work identified “cognitive maps” His and “latent learning” (see fig 6.14) (see 49 49 Cognitive Influence on Learning Animal Cognition – Cognitive maps – Conceptual behavior 50 50 51 51 Learning Can Be Passed on Learning through Cultural Transmission through What is a “meme”? Memes are Memes analogous to genes analogous Consider Imo the Consider monkey: monkey: 52 52 Learning can occur through Learning observation observation Observational learning – Behaviors acquired or modified following Behaviors exposure to others performing the behavior exposure – Through “Imitation” and “Modeling” Through 53 53 Albert Bandura 54 54 Bandura’s Bobo doll Bandura’s experiment experiment Study of observational learning by Study children children Observe adults – Adult hits and kicks doll – Control condition: Adult plays quietly Children then were frustrated by Children researchers - not allowed to play with some toys some 55 55 Punching Bobo Children who viewed Children aggressive adults aggressive more likely to act more aggressively aggressively 56 56 Mineka’s study: Learning of fear Wild rhesus monkeys fear snakes Laboratory-reared monkeys do not Required to reach over snake to get food Laboratory-reared monkeys – Initially reached over snake – Observed fearful wild monkeys refuse – Acquired fear of snakes observationally 57 57 Animals and humans imitate Animals others others Modeling – Imitation learned through observation – Humans more likely to model attractive, Humans high status, or people similar to ourselves high Vicarious reinforcement – Learning consequences by watching others Learning being rewarded or punished being 58 58 Bandura’s study of Bandura’s Vicarious Reinforcement Vicarious Children watch adults play aggressively Children with Bobo doll with – Adult rewarded – Adult punished – Control: No consequences Observe children’s behavior with doll 59 59 Results of Bandura’s study When the model punished: less likely to When less be aggressive than control be When the model praised: more likely to When more be aggressive than control be All children learned aggressive behavior: all able to imitate adult upon request all 60 60 ...
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