Week 9 Reading B

Week 9 Reading B - doi 10.1098/rstb.2009.0115 3289-3299 364...

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Unformatted text preview: doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0115 , 3289-3299 364 2009 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B Hillard S. Kaplan, Paul L. Hooper and Michael Gurven organization The evolutionary and ecological roots of human social Supplementary data ml http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2009/10/05/364.1533.3289.DC1.ht "Audio supplement" References http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1533/3289.full.html#related-urls Article cited in: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1533/3289.full.html#ref-list-1 This article cites 34 articles, 6 of which can be accessed free Rapid response http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/letters/submit/royptb;364/1533/3289 Respond to this article Subject collections (1397 articles) evolution (1158 articles) ecology (1021 articles) behaviour Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections Email alerting service here right-hand corner of the article or click Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions go to: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B To subscribe to This journal is © 2009 The Royal Society on February 2, 2010 rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org Downloaded from The evolutionary and ecological roots of human social organization Hillard S. Kaplan 1, * , Paul L. Hooper 1 and Michael Gurven 2 1 Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA 2 Department of Anthropology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA Social organization among human foragers is characterized by a three-generational system of resource provisioning within families, long-term pair-bonding between men and women, high levels of cooperation between kin and non-kin, and relatively egalitarian social relationships. In this paper, we suggest that these core features of human sociality result from the learning- and skill-intensive human foraging niche, which is distinguished by a late age-peak in caloric production, high complementarity between male and female inputs to offspring viability, high gains to cooperation in production and risk-reduction, and a lack of economically defensible resources. We present an explanatory framework for understanding variation in social organization across human societies, highlighting the interactive effects of four key ecological and economic variables: (i) the role of skill in resource production; (ii) the degree of complementarity in male and female inputs into production; (iii) economies of scale in cooperative production and competition; and (iv) the economic defensibility of physical inputs into production. Finally, we apply this framework to understanding variation in social and political organization across foraging, horticulturalist, pastoralist and agriculturalist societies....
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Week 9 Reading B - doi 10.1098/rstb.2009.0115 3289-3299 364...

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