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304NOTES (1) - January 28 SONNETS-date back to 1225-1230-il...

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January 28 SONNETS -date back to 1225-1230 -il notaio=first book where “sonnet” appeared -sonnet is a “song” without music .... linguistic music -pre-shakespearean sonneteers are a vast history: patrarch, dante, wyatt, surrey, sid- ney (astrophil and stella), daniel, lodge, drayton, barnfield, spenser (amoretti) -particularly PETRARCH: rima sparse. written to some kind of beloved (for petrarch, lara), some kind of communication that achieve...ONE: pays more attention to the speaker, desirer as opposed to the other, the desired and TWO: a lot of attention paid to the actual sonnet, intensely self conscious about the form of the sonnet. starts sonnet as a SEQUENCE -SELF CONSCIOUSNESS: of the writer and of the form -shakespeare is always looking “backwards,” ie he inherited the sonnet culture and made it his own, marking it FORM: 14 lines with distinguishing rhyme scheme -italian: ABBAABBA (octave) or CDECDE or CDCDCD or CDDCDD (sestet) -all end with common rhyme!. easy with the italian language -spenserian: ABAB BCBC CDCD (quartrains) then EE (couplet) -form follows substance. the division of quatrains and ending couplet matters -shakespearean: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG -english sonnets in iambic pentameter -iamb: short syllable then long syllable -pentameter: 5 feet 10 syllables WHY IAMBIC? possibly seems to mimic english speech of the day? -any disruptions of the iambs help to illuminate meaning, bring attention -BREAKING RULES in a world of strict linguistic rules helps to illuminate meaning, esp. to a trained ear of the time SHAKESPEARE’S SONNETS (approx. 1591-1604 ?) -1599: sonnets 138 and 144 published in the passionate pilgrim -1609: 154 sonnets apear in shakespeares sonnets (along with the 329-ling poem, a lover’s complaint) thomas thorpe, publisher -we have no records of shakespeare’s actual writing, only printed editions -DON’T GET HUNG UP ON PUNCTUATION, they punctuated with speaking and not reading in mind, so weird and very oratory. lots of editors mess with punctuation in edi- tions -first 124 sonnets by shakespeare: addressing a young man? -later sonnets= written to the dark lady. 138 written to the dark lady
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-shakespeare latches on to standard narratives, needs to make money, but refuses to be cliched February 2, 2010 -in a shakespearean comedy, usually it focuses on something getting in the way of a young couple getting married...how do we get past this?! -because we need to rejuvenate our society...make babies. you have to overcome the prior generation, old age -draws from the agricultural cycle in the seasons and life and death -also taps into Christian narrative -comedy is about society, the social group -huge stake in “guy guy” relations, homosocial relations -tension between homosocial and heterosexual -always ends in young couple marrying, communal celebration THE MERCHANT OF VENICE -old testament vs. new testament narrative -justice vs. mercy -law vs. love -letter vs. spirit -schylocke vs. antonio=wants to affiliate and complicate the binary -act 4 scene 1 line 172: “Which is the merchant here and which is the Jew?”...suggests that there may not be so much of a difference -antonio: “life and living” vs.. shylock: “life and all”
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