-date back to 1225-1230
-il notaio=first book where “sonnet” appeared
-sonnet is a “song” without music.
-pre-shakespearean sonneteers are a vast history: patrarch, dante, wyatt, surrey, sid-
ney (astrophil and stella), daniel, lodge, drayton, barnfield, spenser (amoretti)
written to some kind of beloved (for petrarch,
lara), some kind of communication that achieve.
..ONE: pays more attention to the
speaker, desirer as opposed to the other, the desired and TWO: a lot of attention paid to
the actual sonnet, intensely self conscious about the form of the sonnet. starts sonnet
as a SEQUENCE
-SELF CONSCIOUSNESS: of the writer and of the form
-shakespeare is always looking “backwards,” ie he inherited the sonnet culture and
made it his own, marking it
FORM: 14 lines with distinguishing rhyme scheme
-italian: ABBAABBA (octave) or CDECDE or CDCDCD or CDDCDD (sestet)
-all end with
common rhyme!. easy with the italian language
-spenserian: ABAB BCBC CDCD (quartrains) then EE (couplet)
-form follows substance. the division of quatrains and ending couplet matters
-shakespearean: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
-english sonnets in iambic pentameter
-iamb: short syllable then long syllable
-pentameter: 5 feet 10 syllables
WHY IAMBIC? possibly seems to mimic english speech of the day?
-any disruptions of the iambs help to illuminate meaning, bring attention
-BREAKING RULES in a world of strict linguistic rules helps to illuminate meaning, esp.
to a trained ear of the time
SHAKESPEARE’S SONNETS (approx. 1591-1604 ?)
-1599: sonnets 138 and 144 published in
the passionate pilgrim
-1609: 154 sonnets apear in
(along with the 329-ling poem,
thomas thorpe, publisher
-we have no records of shakespeare’s actual writing, only printed editions
-DON’T GET HUNG UP ON PUNCTUATION, they punctuated with speaking and not
reading in mind, so weird and very oratory. lots of editors mess with punctuation in edi-
-first 124 sonnets by shakespeare: addressing a young man?
-later sonnets= written to the dark lady. 138 written to the dark lady