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FORMULATION REVIEW PAPER

FORMULATION REVIEW PAPER - The Formulation Jerry T...

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The Formulation Jerry T. Thornthwaite, Ph.D. Director Cancer Research Institute of West Tennessee 114 East Main Street Henderson, TN 38340 1
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Introduction There is general acceptance that treatment of cancer using surgery with or without radiotherapy remains the first treatment modality for most cancer protocols. Radiotherapy is used quite successfully for many forms of cancer while chemotherapy has become an integral part of a multi-disciplinary treatment of cancers and has served also as a palliative measure in cases of advanced cancer (Smith, et al., 2002). Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of surgery, radiation and chemical therapies for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high and has increased in the last few years. In the United States from 1930 through 2004, a trend of increasing cancer deaths is shown among both men and women in Figure 1 (acs.com 2007). Although advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy and surgery for disease management have helped to enhance the overall survival of afflicted patients, major improvements in treatments for most human cancers are urgently needed. The control and therapy of cancer may benefit from introduction of new treatments derived from natural products. Many pharmaceutical products approved for human disease treatment are derived from natural sources. The discovery of efficacious compounds for cancer management will benefit from new understanding of the molecular and cellular pathways that regulate tumor proliferation and progression (Pietras and Weinberg 2005). Patients are becoming acutely aware of the alternative approaches. Nine studies performed worldwide among cancer patients showed that 41.2% used complementary and alternative medicine during their treatment (Tascilar, et al., 2006). Trends in the Number of Cancer Deaths among U.S. Men and Women . (1930-2004) 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Date Number of Cancer Deaths Males Females 2
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In almost all cases of treatment failure, the patient develops distant metastases. While surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are all available to eradicate loco-regional disease, they are of little value with distant metastases. For such distant metastases, chemotherapy is the recommended approach, but effectiveness is limited by toxic side- effects at high doses and lack of specificity. Furthermore, within the holistic approach of clinical cancer therapy there is now increasing emphasis being given to patient quality of life following these classical treatments, which is encompassed in the term “Hospice”. The conclusion is survival should not be the sole criterion for assessing the treatment results. Thus, it has increasingly become an accepted practice for the oncologist to provide a way to make the patient “comfortable” until they die (Smith, et al., 2002).
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