Exam 1 Lecture Study GuideX

Exam 1 Lecture Study GuideX - CMN 105: Lecture Study Guide...

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Meaning/Language Principles 1. What’s the difference between the fields of Semantics and Pragmatics? What other disciplines influence the two? Semantics – the study of how we acquire meaning through linguistic knowledge Pragmatics – the study of how we acquire meaning through context Semantics is influenced by Linguistic Pragmatics is influenced by Philosophy 2. What are the two broad types of human experience? Why is this important to understand? a. Direct/Sensory – everything that we perceive first-hand through the senses Signs: Unintentional meaning vehicles (coyote tracks, clouds, fingerprints) b. Symbolic – everything we perceive through the use of symbols Symbols: Intentional meaning vehicles (language as a shared code) 3. Why are signs and symbols considered to be “meaning vehicles?” What’s the difference between the two? Because they provide information/meaning and transfer meaning Signs are unintentional meaning vehicles Symbols are intentional meaning vehicles 4. What is the goal of communication? What else was said about “language and communication?” Goal of communication: shared meaning Language is one vehicle we used to create shared meaning We are meaning-seeking creatures We often have a strong social desire and evolutionary drive to express our private meanings to others 5. What are the various types of meaning in the transmission of a message? What are the three facets that make up content meaning? Intended meaning: express something specific Significative meaning: transferred through our shared symbolic code Content meaning: combination of conceptual, emotive, and active meanings to form the content of what is said Interpreted meaning: receiving and interpreting (making sense of) the symbols 6. What is denotative and connotative meaning? How are they different? What is the communicative implication of connotative meaning? Denotative : logical, agreed-upon relationship meaning – dictionary definition Connotative : psychological, idiosyncratic definition 7. What do the terms referent, co-referent, and extension mean? : the object, entity, idea, thought, feeling to which the word “points” where your mind goes when the word is said. Co-referent : when multiple referents “point” to a single entity . For example, multiple referents for a single person: full name, nickname, work title, etc. Extension : the number of things a word can refer to varies ; the greater the number of things the word refers to, the greater the extension 8. What is abstraction in language? What makes one word more or less abstract than another word? What’s useful about abstract language and what’s potentially problematic about abstract language? Abstraction
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2010 for the course CMN 141 taught by Professor Hwang during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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Exam 1 Lecture Study GuideX - CMN 105: Lecture Study Guide...

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