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Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive Theory - Social Cognitive Theory by...

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Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura How do we learn new behaviors? Old Learning Behavior (Behaviorism) Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors Focuses solely on observable behaviors A biological basis for learning Learning is context-independent Classical Conditioning Behaviorism (environmental stimuli elicit behavior and responses) Classical Conditioning – Pavlov A stimulus is presented in order to get a response S R Classical Conditioning: A learning process that occurs through associations b/w an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus : one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. E.g. when you smell one of your favorite foods, you feel hungry. US=smell of food Unconditioned Response : unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to unconditioned stimulus. E.g. the feeling of hunger Conditioned Stimulus : previously natural stimulus, after becoming associated w/ unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. Behaviorism Summary & Limitations Purest version of learning theories Rewards & punishment = conditioning Only replicable observation counts Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed Does not account for symbolic learning w/o direct experience Social Cognitive Theory Provides a framework that allows us to analyze human cognition and the behavior that it produces Direct offshoot of social learning theory 1960’s No direct reward necessary : - Allows for thinking - Part of Cognitive Revolution in Scientific psychology Importance of cognitive learning : - Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols - Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful and memorable way - Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection If one were motivated to learn a particular behavior, then it would be learned thru clear observations Extends behaviorism and focuses on the influence that observing others has on behavior It considers, in addition to behavior and the environment , learners' beliefs and expectations . suggests that reinforcement and punishment affect learners' motivation , rather than directly cause behavior
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Behaviorism VS. Social Cognitive Theory Under Behaviorism, one acts on stimulation; in cognitive, one act on consideration The view of learning process for a behaviorist is change in behavior; while a cognitivist views internal mental process The locus of learning for behaviorists is the stimuli in external environments, whereas cognitivists have internal cognitive structuring The purpose of education in terms of behaviorists is to produce behavioral change in desired direction, and cognitivists
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