Psych 2000-Memory Modules 26-28

Psych 2000-Memory Modules 26-28 - MEMORY:PART1 PSYC2000...

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MEMORY: PART 1 PSYC 2000
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MODULES 26-28 Introduction to Memory Encoding:  Getting Information In Storage:  Retaining Information
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INTRODUCTION TO  MEMORY Module 26
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PHENOMENON OF  MEMORY Memory is the persistence of  learning over time through  the storage and retrieval of  information How do we remember? Why do we remember  certain things? Why are two people’s  accounts of an event so  different? How can we improve our  memory?
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STAGES OF MEMORY In computers, this process is sequential. In humans, the brain can do many things at once—in parallel.
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IMPORTANT TERMS IN  MEMORY Encoding —the processing of  information into the memory  system Storage —the retention of  encoded information into the  memory system Retrieval —the process of  getting information out of  memory storage
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TYPES OF MEMORY Sensory memory—the immediate,  very brief recording of sensory  information in the memory  system Short-term memory—activated  memory that holds a few items  briefly before the information is  stored or forgotten Long-term memory—the  relatively permanent and  limitless storehouse of the  memory system
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-- l +Q ∙ p LLVV RRN N N TT NN F G G G
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STUDYING MEMORY:   INFORMATION-PROCESSING  MODELS Atkinson & Shiffron Model Compares human memory to a computer
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WORKING MEMORY A newer understanding of  short-term memory Focuses on conscious, active  processing of incoming  auditory and visual-spatial  information, and of  information retrieved from  long-term memory
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ENCODING: GETTING  INFORMATION IN Module 27
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HOW WE ENCODE
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ENCODING INFORMATION Some information is automatically  processed Your route to school However, novel information requires  attention and effort Remember a friend’s new cell-phone number
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AUTOMATIC  PROCESSING Unconscious encoding of  incidental information of  well learned information Space—remembering  where something in your  notes was located Time—remembering where  you left something Frequency—how many  times you have seen the  same person Well learned—word  definitions
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EFFORTFUL  PROCESSING  Encoding that requires  attention and conscious  effort Produces durable and  accessible memories
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REHEARSAL The conscious repetition of  information, either to maintain it in  consciousness or to encode it for  storage
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HERMANN EBBINGHAUS (1850-1909) Scientifically studied his  own learning and  forgetting Use non-sense syllables JIH, BAZ, FUB, YOX,  SUJ After a day, recalled a few The amount remembered  depended on the time  spent learning Practice makes perfect!
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EFFORTFUL PROCESSING:  REHEARSAL The  more times  the  nonsense syllables were  practiced  on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were  required to relearn them  on Day 2.
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