Biology 1201-Chapter 9-Cellular Respiration

Biology 1201-Chapter 9-Cellular Respiration -...

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Biology 1201   (MWF 11:30-12:30 PM) Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting of Chemical Energy Energy flows through ecosystems while the chemicals within an ecosystem are recycled. E NERGY   FLOW :   L IGHT    O RGANIC  M OLECULES    ATP + H EAT R ESPIRATION : A N  O VERVIEW  - 8.1.3 * Cellular respiration  and  fermentation  are catabolic pathways. F ERMENTATION The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other  microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat. No ATP production Organic electron donors and acceptors C ELLULAR   R ESPIRATION The process in which a cell breaks down sugar or other  organic compounds to release energy used for cellular work; may be anaerobic or aerobic,  depending on the availability of oxygen. Catabolism of organic molecules
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ATP production Inorganic electron acceptor C 6 H 12 O 6  + 6 O 2    6 CO 2  + 6 H 2 O + E NERGY  (ATP +  HEAT ) H OW   MUCH   ENERGY ? Δ G= -686  KCAL / MOL   OF   SUGAR *The ATP generated is used for work and then regenerated. R EDOX : A B RIEF  R EVIEW  - 8.1.4 * Redox reactions  release energy when electrons move closer to electronegative atoms. R EDOX   REACTIONS  ( OXIDATION - REDUCTION   REACTIONS )— Describe all  chemical reactions  in  which atoms have their  oxidation number  ( oxidation state ) changed.
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O XIDATION —The  loss  of  electrons  or an  increase  in oxidation state by a  molecule atom or  ion . R EDUCTION The  gain  of electrons or a  decrease  in oxidation state by a molecule, atom,  or ion. G ENERALIZED   REDOX   REACTION X E -  + Y   X + Y E - Xe -  is oxidized to  X  and  Y  is reduced to  Ye - X  is the reducing agent, and  Y  is the oxidizing agent The transfer of electrons doesn’t have to be a complete transfer (shown above) it may only  be a partial transfer (e.g., combustion of methane) C ELLULAR   RESPIRATION   AS   A   REDOX   REACTION C 6 H 12 O 6  + 6 O 2    6 CO 2  + 6 H 2 O Carbon and hydrogen of  C 6 H 12 O 6   is oxidized to  6 CO 2   and  6 H 2 O , oxygen of  6 O is reduced to  6 H 2 O The valence electrons of carbon and hydrogen have less potential energy as they shift  toward the more electronegative oxygen atoms; the released energy is used to make ATP. *Cellular fuels (e.g., carbohydrates and fats) are rich in C-H bonds. C
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Biology 1201-Chapter 9-Cellular Respiration -...

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