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Unformatted text preview: B IOLOGY 1201 (MWF 11:30-12:30 PM) C HAPTER 12 T HE C ELL C YCLE  C ELL DIVISION functions in growth, tissue renewal and repair, and reproduction. C ELL D IVISION — The process in which the genome of a cell is faithfully passed along to the next generation of cell. • Division of a cell into two daughter cells with the same genetic material. G ENOME — The entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of virus , in RNA . • The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism. S OME CHARACTERISTICS OF CELL DIVISION : • Replication of DNA. • Equal distribution of DNA to opposite ends of the dividing cell. • Separation into two daughter cells. T HE E UKARYOTIC C ELL C YCLE - 12.1.1  The genome of a eukaryotic cell is organized into multiple CHROMOSOMES . C HROMOSOMES — A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. • The chromosome is made up of CHROMATIN . • Chromosomes are referred to as along strands (but those are un-replicated chromosomes). • Replicated chromosomes form X’s. Chromatin —The aggregate mass of dispersed genetic material formed of DNA and protein. S OMATIC C ELLS — Are cells that make up the body of the organism. • Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells. • Somatic cells are usually diploid (two matched sets of chromosomes). • Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in the somatic cells. Diploid— The condition where cells have two sets of chromosomes. • Usually each set is derived from a different parent. G AMETES — (also called sex or germ cells) are the cells that take part in sexual reproduction....
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