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Biology 1201-Chapter 5-Macromolecules

Biology 1201-Chapter 5-Macromolecules - Biology1201(MWF...

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Biology 1201 (MWF 11:30-12:30 PM) CHAPTER 5 Structure and Function of Macromolecules Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides –  5.1.2 * Macromolecules and Polymers Macromolecules —A molecule containing a very large number of atoms. Examples: a. protein b. nucleic acid c. synthetic polymer Polymer —A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together. Examples : many synthetic organic materials used as— a. plastics b. resins Monomer —A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer. The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers is a polymerization reaction . Most biological polymerization reactions are condensation reactions  also called a dehydration synthesis reaction . Condensation reactions  ( dehydration synthesis reaction )— A chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. o Dehydration reactions are a subset of elimination reactions . Hydrolysis —The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
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Diversity in polymers comes from the variation in the arrangement of the monomers. Four Classes of Macromolecules: Macromolecule type Monomer type Linkage CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS GLYCOSIDIC LIPIDS FATTY ACIDS ESTER PROTEINS AMINO ACIDS PEPTIDE NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDES PHOSPHODIESTER Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - 5.1.1 Carbohydrates are used as fuels and building material . Carbohydrates —Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1). Can typically be broken down to release energy in the animal body. Monomers of simple sugars are called monosaccharides . Monosaccharide —Any of the class of sugars (that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. Ex. glucose 1) Each carbon has a hydroxyl group (-OH) and at least one hydrogen (-H) attached to it for except one carbon, which has a carbonyl group instead of the hydroxyl. *Aldose or Ketose 2) The size of the carbon skeleton Some Examples of Common Sugars: ALDOSES KETOSES
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TRIOSE (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) 3- carbon Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone PENTOSE (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) 5- carbon Ribose Ribulose HEXOSE (C 6 H 12 O 6 )6- carbon Glucose Fructose 3) Enantiomers exist for each asymmetric carbon 4) In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons in the skeleton form ring structures. *Disaccharides Disaccharides —Any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues. Glycosidic linkage —A type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
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