Biology 1201-Chapter 5-Macromolecules

Biology 1201-Chapter 5-Macromolecules - Biology1201 (MWF...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biology 1201 (MWF 11:30-12:30 PM) CHAPTER 5 Structure and Function of Macromolecules Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides –  5.1.2 * Macromolecules and Polymers Macromolecules —A molecule containing a very large number of atoms. Examples: a. protein b. nucleic acid c. synthetic polymer Polymer —A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together. Examples : many synthetic organic materials used as— a. plastics b. resins Monomer —A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer. The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers is a polymerization reaction . Most biological polymerization reactions are condensation reactions  also called a dehydration synthesis reaction . Condensation reactions  ( dehydration synthesis reaction )— A chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. o Dehydration reactions are a subset of elimination reactions . Hydrolysis —The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Diversity in polymers comes from the variation in the arrangement of the monomers. Four Classes of Macromolecules: Macromolecule type Monomer type Linkage CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS GLYCOSIDIC LIPIDS FATTY ACIDS ESTER PROTEINS AMINO ACIDS PEPTIDE NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDES PHOSPHODIESTER Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - 5.1.1 Carbohydrates are used as fuels and building material . Carbohydrates —Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1). Can typically be broken down to release energy in the animal body. Monomers of simple sugars are called monosaccharides . Monosaccharide —Any of the class of sugars (that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. Ex. glucose 1) Each carbon has a hydroxyl group (-OH) and at least one hydrogen (-H) attached to it for except one carbon, which has a carbonyl group instead of the hydroxyl. *Aldose or Ketose 2) The size of the carbon skeleton Some Examples of Common Sugars: ALDOSES KETOSES
Background image of page 2
TRIOSE (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) 3- carbon Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone PENTOSE (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) 5- carbon Ribose Ribulose HEXOSE (C 6 H 12 O 6 )6- carbon Glucose Fructose 3) Enantiomers exist for each asymmetric carbon 4) In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons in the skeleton form ring structures. *Disaccharides Disaccharides —Any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues. Glycosidic linkage —A type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate. * α (alpha)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/09/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

Page1 / 10

Biology 1201-Chapter 5-Macromolecules - Biology1201 (MWF...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online