Biology 1201-Chapter 5

Biology - Biology1201(MWF11:3012:30PM CHAPTER5 :Disaccharides5.1.2* Examples a protein b nucleicacid c syn

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Biology 1201   (MWF 11:30-12:30 PM) CHAPTER 5 Structure and Function of Macromolecules Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides – 5.1.2 * Macromolecules and Polymers Macromolecules —A molecule containing a very large number of atoms. Examples: a. protein b. nucleic acid c. synthetic polymer Polymer —A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of  a large number of similar units bonded together.  Examples : many synthetic organic materials used as— a. plastics  b. resins Monomer —A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a  polymer. The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers is a  polymerization reaction . Most biological polymerization reactions are  condensation reactions  also called a  dehydration synthesis reaction . Condensation reactions ( dehydration synthesis reaction )— A chemical reaction that  involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule.  o Dehydration reactions are a subset of  elimination reactions . Hydrolysis —The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water. Diversity   in   polymers   comes   from   the   variation   in   the   arrangement   of   the  monomers.
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Four Classes of Macromolecules: Macromolecule type Monomer type Linkage CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS GLYCOSIDIC LIPIDS FATTY ACIDS ESTER PROTEINS AMINO ACIDS PEPTIDE NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDES PHOSPHODIESTER Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides - 5.1.1 Carbohydrates are used as  fuels  and  building material . Carbohydrates —Any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and  living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.  They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1). Can typically be broken down to release energy in the animal body. Monomers of simple sugars are called  monosaccharides . Monosaccharide —Any  of the class of sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a  simpler sugar. Ex. glucose 1) Each carbon has a hydroxyl group (-OH) and at least one hydrogen (-H) attached to it  for except one carbon, which has a carbonyl group instead of the hydroxyl. Aldose OR Ketose 2) The size of the carbon skeleton  Some Examples of Common Sugars:
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ALDOSES KETOSES TRIOSE (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) 3-carbon Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone PENTOSE (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) 5-carbon Ribose Ribulose HEXOSE (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) 6-carbon Glucose Fructose 3) Enantiomers exist for each asymmetric carbon 4) In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides with 5 or more carbons in the skeleton form  ring structures.  *Disaccharides Disaccharides —Any   of   a   class   of   sugars   whose   molecules   contain   two  monosaccharide residues. Glycosidic   linkage
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Biology - Biology1201(MWF11:3012:30PM CHAPTER5 :Disaccharides5.1.2* Examples a protein b nucleicacid c syn

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