4-26-10 Plants, Phytochemicals and the Human Body-color

4-26-10 Plants, Phytochemicals and the Human Body-color -...

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Unformatted text preview: Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: “We have to Ensure that our Ethics are Always as Sophisticated as Our Science” Clicker Question Puerperal fever (childbed fever) was a result of ___________. A) a deficiency in both vitamins B1 and B3 B) B) having two copies of the recessive puerperal puerperal allele C) having one copy of the dominant puerperal allele D) doctors transferring the Streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria to the patient E) food poisoning President Clinton and the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment DON’T MISS IT!! KSA & KASA’s KOREAN CULTURE NIGHT Saturday, May 1st 8PM @ Duffield Hall Korean Food Games Performers Special videos For more info: sa348 or sl494 Facebook event page: iKOREA Free Coffee this Wednesday! Where Where are we? Last Last time I talked about… – disease (dis-ease) and the courageous (disand heroic fight against it (and the medical establishment). estab – methods used to test and diagnose disease. This This time I will talk about… – plants and their many economic uses. – plants used to fight disease (fever, malaria, cancer, etc.). 1 Cornell Plantations Plants are Pretty and Smell Nice: Roses (Rosa) and Tulips (Tulipa) Plants May Provide the Biological Equivalent of “Art for Art’s Sake.” 2 Plants Are a Source of Nutrients Together Grains and Legumes Provide All the Essential Amino Acids Essential amino acids Methionine Valine (Histidine) Threonine Phenylalanine Leucine Corn Isoleucine Beans and other legumes Tryptophan Lysine Grains: Oats, Wheat, Rice and Corn Soybean and Other Legumes 3 Iroquois— Iroquois—Three Sisters Garden Food Food with Grains and Legumes Rice and Tofu Food with Grains and Legumes Succotash— Succotash—Eaten all over the World and during the Depression Corn and Beans Corn and Beans from the Region George Washington Carver Used his Knowledge of Botany to Help “The Man Farthest Down” • George Washington Carver and the Tomato Legend has it that while giving speeches in the 20th century, George Washington Carver would eat a tomato, proving to the audience that tomatoes were edible and not poisonous. The tomato, known as the love apple, is related to deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and in the USA, many thought that the tomato, like the deadly nightshade, was poisonous. Robert Gibbon Johnson How to Grow the Tomato • George Washington Carver was a botanist who realized that when farmers grew cotton, the soil became depleted of the nutrients necessary for plant growth. In order to ensure the sustainability of the soil, he suggested that the farmers alternate growing cotton with legumes such as peanuts and soybeans that fix nitrogen and would replenish the soil. Carver invented many uses for legumes, including cooking oil, a milk substitute, cosmetics, a peanut nitroglycerine and Peanuts printer’s ink so that growing the alternative, soil-restoring crop would be www.tuskegee.edu profitable. americanheritage.com 4 5 Analysis of Genetically-Engineered Crops Geneticallyby the National Agricultural Biotechnology Council (NABC) “The National Agricultural Biotechnology Council has been hosting annual public meetings about the safe, ethical, and efficacious development of agricultural biotechnology products since its formation by the Boyce Thompson Institute in collaboration with Cornell Cornell University, Iowa State University, and the University of CaliforniaCaliforniaDavis in 1988.” Analysis of Genetically-Engineered Crops Geneticallyby the Union of Concerned Scientists http://nabc.cals.cornell.edu/ Plants Are a Source of Flavorings: Cacao (Theobroma cacao) and Vanilla Orchid (Vanilla) Plants are the Source of Fiber for Clothes: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Linen (Linum usitatissimum) http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/index.html Plants are a Source of Fabric Dyes: Delphinium and Marigold (Tagetes) Marigold Plants are a Source of Paper and Wood 6 Plants are a Source of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) Algae can Remove CO2 from Smokestacks and then be Used as Biofuels www.ucsusa.org solixbiofuels.com 15-algae-startups Watching Plants Move and Grow Is Fun: Venus’ Fly Trap (Dionaea muscipula) and and the Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica) Sensitive Plant Biology “The true meaning of life is to plant trees, under under whose shade shade you do not expect to sit.” --Nelson --Nelson Henderson Plant Plant Systematics Plant Plant Genetics Plant Plant Evolution Paleobotany Paleobotany (fossils) Plant Plant Morphology Plant Plant Anatomy Plant Plant Physiology Plant Plant Chemistry Biomechanics Biomechanics of Plants Plant Plant Cell Biology Plant Plant Ecology Plant Plant –omics Ethnobotany Ethnobotany Botanical Society of America 7 Plants Are Used to Fight Disease: Salix, Spirea and Cinchona Barking Up the Right Tree: Aspirin Since Since ancient times, people have been chewing willow willow bark to relieve the aches and relieve pains of fever and arthritis. Willow Willow bark acts as an an analgesic analgesic to reduce pain, an reduce antipyretic antipyretic to reduce fever and an anti-inflammatory antidrug to reduce the fluid-induced fluidswelling (suppuration) that occurs during an inflammation response. Barking Up the Right Tree: Aspirin Raffaele Raffaele Piria (1838) separated salicin, an extract salicin, of willow bark, into a sugar and salicylaldehyde and then converted converted the salicylaldehyde into salicylic acid. salicylic Karl Karl Löwig (1839) found that he could produce salicylic salicylic acid from salicin isolated from from the bark of Spiraea. Spiraea Salicilin Salicylaldehyde Salicylic Acid Spiraea Barking Up the Right Tree: Aspirin The The oil from birch bark and eastern teaberry (wintergreen) that had long been used topically topically to relieve aches and pain was found found to contain methyl salicylate. salicylate. Salicylic acid was also produced from the methyl salicylate. methyl Many Many people took salicylic salicylic acid orally for fever and headaches, but it caused them to have upset stomachs. upset 8 Eastern Teaberry methyl salicylate Barking Up the Right Tree: Aspirin Hermann Hermann Kolbe (1859) figured out how to synthesize salicylic acid synthesize artificially from ingredients found in coal tar that reduced its price tenreduced tenfold compared to the price of the chemical extracted from willow bark. Charles Frederic Gerhardt (1853) Ch synthesized synthesized a compound that was less less irritating to the stomach. He added sodium to the salicylic acid to neutralize it and combined the sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride. Gerhardt worked in his own private school and did not have the time to follow up on his own research. Salicylic Acid Acetylsalicylic Acid Barking Up the Right Tree: Aspirin While While working for Bayer Pharmaceuticals, Felix Hoffmann (1897) wanted to make a pain reliever for his father, who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis. His father could not take take the commercially-available commerciallysalicylic acid because he could not tolerate the upset stomach it gave him. Arthur Arthur Eichengrün and Hoffmann rediscovered Gerhardt’s idea and realized that adding the acetyl group helped neutralize the acid group. Barking Up the Right Tree: Aspirin Hoffmann Hoffmann found that acetylsalicylic acetylsalicylic acid relieves pain and is gentle gentle on the stomach. Hoffmann Hoffmann worked for Bayer, who patented the new new drug under the name Aspirin Aspirin. (A for acetyl and spir spir for the Spirea plant Spir from which the salicylic acid was isolated). Hoffmann Hoffmann went on to discover Heroin, a cough medicine marketed by Bayer and then went into marketing himself. 9 Products from Bayer Coal Tar Before Before the discovery of natural gas in Fredonia, NY in 1821, coal coal was roasted (coked) in every town and city to produce “manufactured gas”. The The gas, which was also known as as coal gas, illuminating gas illuminating and and town gas was used to heat homes, cook food and fuel street lights. After After removing the gas, the residue was called coal tar. coal The The coal tar was used to synthesize valuable chemicals out of industrial waste. www.nyseg.com Synthesis of Aspirin from Coal Tar Markles Flats Ithaca Observation: Women’s Uteruses can Contract Violently During Artificial Inseminations During artificial During artificial inseminations, Drs. Kurzrok, Lieb and Ratner (1930s) in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University discovered that when they injected semen semen into some women, their uteruses uteruses would contract violently. Sarah Sarah Ratner (Ø) looked for the chemical that produced contractions in human semen. Artificial Insemination 10 Observation: Women’s Uteruses can Contract Violently During Artificial Inseminations Ulf Ulf von Euler (1935) discovered the component of semen that caused the semen contraction of smooth muscles. He called the chemical chemical that is also found in the prostate gland, prostate prostaglandin prostaglandin. Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are paracrine paracrine (used in nearby cells) or autocrine (used in autocrine same cell) factors found throughout the body. Prostaglandins are Used to Induce Labor or Abortions Misoprostol is a prostaglandin prostaglandin that is given alone to induce labor by causing uterine contractions or with Mifepristone Mifepristone (RU486), a progesterone antagonist to induce abortions. John Vane Found that the Synthesis of Prostaglandins Was Prevented By Aspirin Aspirin: The Wonder Drug Interleukin (ILInterleukin (IL-1), secreted by the white blood cells fighting infections, stimulate the release of prostaglandins. It It is actually the prostaglandins prostaglandins that that increase the set-point of the thermostat in thermostat in the hypothalamus and lower the threshold of the pain pain receptors. Since aspirin blocks Since aspirin blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins, prostaglandins cannot be released in response to ILIL-1. This is why aspirin stops you from feeling crummy. John Vane found that aspirin prevented stimulusstimulus-induced smooth muscle contraction because it prevented the synthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin: The Wonder Drug Aspirin Aspirin also prevents thromboxanethromboxane-induced, prostaglandinprostaglandin-independent platelet platelet aggregation that is necessary necessary for blood clotting. blood Consequently, Consequently, baby aspirin (81 mg) is used as a blood blood thinner to reduce clotting and the risk of heart attack and heart stroke stroke. The downside is that aspirin will make you bleed more upon injury. http://www.aspirin.com/index_en.html 11 Barking Up Another Right Tree: Quinine Malaria Malaria, ague or marsh marsh fever have plagued humans throughout recorded history. history. Currently, Currently, a child in Africa dies of malaria every 30 seconds. April April 25, 2010 is World Malaria Day. http://www.rollbackmalaria.org/worldmalariaday/ Many Cures for Malaria Have Been Tried: But None Worked. Dioscorides Dioscorides (1 AD) had a cure: He prescribed eating fleas. fleas Pliny the Younger (1 Plin AD) had a cure: He prescribed eating the eyes eyes of crabs, wolves and vipers. Galen Galen (1 AD) had a cure: He recommended purging purging and bleeding. Many Cures for Malaria Have Been Tried: But None Worked Albertus Albertus Magnus (1200s), the teacher of Thomas Aquinas, had a cure: “Take “Take the urine of the patient and mix it with some flour to it fl make make a good dough thereof, of which seventy-seven small seventycakes are made: proceed before sunrise to an ant hill and throw the cakes therein. As soon as the insects have devoured the cakes the fever vanishes.” Many Cures for Malaria Have Been Tried: But None Worked Joseph Joseph Blagrave (1670) had a cure: He called upon astrology to astrology fight malaria. Malaria Malaria was most prevalent during the the dog days (July 15-August 20), when Sirius when Sirius, the Dog Star, appeared to be in the same position as the Sun. Soon Soon the astrological charts of astrological of patients were calculated. When this did not help, he would calculate the astrological charts of the people near the patient to find the witch who caused the fever. witch who Biological Evidence Against Astrology Not Heeded It us useful to remember Saint Augustine’s (354-430) (354biological biological evidence against astrology: “[The astrologers] “[The have have never been able to explain why twins are so different different in what they do and achieve…. yet, twins yet, twins are born with practically no interval of time between their births and are conceived in precisely the same moment of a single sexual semination.” 12 Rome and Vatican City were Swampy The Peruvian Fever Bark Tree Catholic Catholic priests went to South America along with the explorers and learned about the medicines that could could be found there. The wife The wife of the Count of Cinchon came down with a fever and someone gave her the bark from a bark Peruvian tree. She was cured. At this time, Rome and Vatican City, in particular, were full of swamps and malaria swamps and malaria and as a number of popes died from malaria, popes the Catholic Church had some interest in Catholic finding a cure. ure. The The Peruvian Fever Bark Tree No No one knows how the effectiveness of the Peruvian bark was first discovered. Some Some say that a Spanish soldier who had malaria drank from a swamp and fell asleep. When he awoke, the fever was gone. He He remembered that a tree that had been been split by lightning was submerged in the swamp and that the curative swamp water had a bitter taste. He bitter guessed that the cure came from the cure bitter bitter tasting chemicals that had leached from the bark of that tree. The The Count of Cichon brought the bark to Spain and gave it freely to the poor and the tree that the bark came from, became known as the cinchona. cinchona The Physicians Had No Interest in the Fever Bark Tree Whenever Whenever a pope died, power shifted in the Catholic Church between Italy, Spain and France. This was destabilizing. In In 1649, the cardinals met in Rome to discuss how to promote the curative to cu powers of the bark from the Peruvian fever bark tree since the physicians, physicians, who were busy purging and bleeding patients, seemed to have no interest in using a chemical remedy. After After the meeting, Cardinal Juan de Lugo promoted the use of the bark instead of bloodletting and purging, to cure malaria. The Jesuit’s Bark De De Lugo enlisted the help of Pope Innocent X’s physician, Fonseca, to investigate the curative powers of the fever bark tree. The Pope also weighed in on the curative power of the bark. Within a year, the Catholic physicians’ physicians’ prejudice against chemical cures had been overturned and “Powder of the Most Eminent Cardinal de Lugo” was used all over Rome. The The Jesuits promoted its use all over the world and it also became known as the Jesuit’s powder or Jesuit’s Jesuit’s Jesuit’s bark. A Renewed Dispute Between the Physicians and the Pope Archduke Archduke Leopold of Austria was cured of malaria by the Jesuit’s powder, but he was angry when the fever returned a month later. Instead Instead of taking more of the Jesuit’s powder, he instructed Joan Jacob Chiflet, his physician, to write a book warning against the quackery of the Jesuits and their powder. Chiflet’s Chiflet’s book, “Exposure of the Febrifuge Powder from the American World”, which appeared in 1653, signaled a renewed beginning in the dispute between physicians and the pope. In the same year, Fabri retaliated with: “Vindication of the Peruvian Powder.” 13 Bubonic Plague is not Cured by Jesuit’s Bark The Catholic Cure Was a “Popish Plot” Not Not realizing the difference between different fevers, the Protestants began to think that the Jesuit’s think bark bark was a “popish plot” that would kill them if they used it. They They preferred to stick with the purging and purging bleeding that had been advocated by Galen. The The Archduke then asked Vopiscus Fortunatus Vopiscus Plempius (1655), a political operative who initially vilified William Harvey for going against Galen, to help malign the Jesuit’s bark. During During the controversy, the bubonic plague the ravished Europe and the Jesuit’s bark was powerless to fight this non-malarian fever, nonwhich was caused by the bacterium, Yersinia Yersinia pestis. A “Bubo” is a swollen gland. Galen The Protestants Preferred Bleeding and Purging Bloodletting was Used to Fight Malaria Bloodletting Bloodletting may have had some success in curing malaria by depriving the Plasmodium Plasmodium of sufficient iron to live and multiply in the blood. Bloodletting Bloodletting was one of the principal duties of the barberbarbersurgeon. The The red and white spirals around a barber pole represent the bandages tied around the arm of a patient before and after bloodletting. www.barberpole.com Thomas Sydenham (1666) published his influential book, “Method for Curing Method the the Fever”, which supported Galen’s methods of purging purging and bleeding. A Popular View of 17th Century Medicine: Le Malade Imaginaire by Moliere Robert Talbor’s Secret Cure In In England, Robert Talbor was considered a quack because quack he did not purge and bleed his patients, but used chemicals. chemicals He agreed that the Jesuit’s bark was ineffective so he made his own secret secret chemical cure. He He cured Charles II and the son of Louis the XIV of France of malaria using his secret recipe. Louis XIV, the Sun King, bought the recipe from Talbor under the condition that he would not reveal it until after Talbor’s death. In In 1682, the secret recipe was revealed. It contained the It Jesuit’s bark. “Dost thou swear to follow the advice of the ancients whether good or bad? Dost thou swear not to use any other remedy but those used by the Faculty even if the patient should die?” 14 Sir George Baker For For a century, English physicians including William Harvey resented Talbor and never adopted the Jesuit’s bark to treat malaria. George George Baker (1785) finally had the courage to speak up for its powers and the sociology of science at the time: “H “Had it not been for the casual th experience experience of an uncivilized people, it might never have been discovered….Had not the influence of a great religious society…counteracted prevailing prejudices…this medicine may have long remained unknown…. had not physicians been taught by a man, whom they…vilified as an ignorant empiric…” Isolation of Quinine The The Jesuit’s bark began to be used throughout Europe. Joseph Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou (1820), two chemists isolated a sticky, pale yellow gum from the isolated yellow bark of the Peruvian fever bark tree. The The gum was soluble in acid, alcohol, and ether and effective against malaria. They named the chemical quinine from quinine from the Peruvian Indian name of the tree, quinquina. The Beginning of the Dye Industry William William Henry Perkin was trying to synthesize quinine synthesize from the aniline found in aniline found coal coal tar, a waste product of making the coal gas necessary necessary to drive the industrial industrial revolution, when he accidentally synthesized Royal Royal Purple, a dye typically extracted from the secretion of a snail, Murex brandaris. Murex This accidental This accidental discovery led led Perkin to found the dye industry and forget about the synthesis of quinine. Planting Cinchona Around the World Throughout the 19th Century, without a synthetic source of quinine, cinchona was planted planted all over the world world by the crews in the great sailing ships of each nation so that a cure for the deadly malaria would be readily available to each nation. 15 War and Quinine War and Quinine: Making Synthetic Quinine (Chloroquine) Because Because of this, the German government initiated a search for quinine substitutes. In 1934, Hans Andersag of Bayer, synthesized chloroquine, a th hl synthetic synthetic quinine. During During WWII, the Germans controlled the quinine sources and scientists in America began work on obtaining cinchona and making and studying synthetic quinine. During WWI, cinchona was inaccessible to the German troops in East Africa and they suffered heavy casualties from malaria. malaria. Total Synthesis of Quinine Robert Robert B. Woodward synthesized quinine in 1944 at Harvard. Since Since quinine was needed by the soldiers fighting WWII, Woodward was proclaimed by the New York Times as a hero. Chloroquine vs. Quinine Since Chloroquine was cheaper to make, more effecti effective in smaller doses doses and had fewer side effects than quinine, chloroquine soon became the “drug of choice” to fight malaria. ChloroquineChloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium Evolve Plasmodium Evolve In In 1986, a helicopter mechanic traveling in Nigeria took chloroquine to prevent malaria. On December 9, he developed fever, chills, and headache, and was hospitalized in California on December 18. A blood smear revealed that his red blood blood blood cells were infected with Plasmodium Plasmodium. He He still had a high fever after he was given high doses of chloroquine. A blood test indicated that the treatment dosage of chloroquine had been absorbed. Parasites Parasites isolated from his blood were found to be resistant to chloroquine. The The patient responded promptly to treatment with quinine and tetracycline and has remained well. cdc.gov 16 ChloroquineChloroquine-Resistance Means Developing New Anti-malarial Drugs Anti- Lariam (mefloquine) is the New Antimalarial Drug mefloquine) Lariam Lariam, which was developed at the Walter Reed Hospital has some serious side effects: restlessness, anxiety, depression, mood changes, panic attacks, forgetfulness, confusion, hallucinations, hallucinations, aggression, psychotic or aggression psychotic paranoid paranoid reactions, suicidal ideation, and suicide. It It is not certain if the side effects are rare (1:10,000) or common (1:140). One One must balance the risks of becoming psychotic with the risks of getting malaria. The Surgeon General recommends taking other drugs if possible. Army Surgeon General Artemisinin Extract from Artemesia Artemesia annua is an Effective Antimalarial Drug ArtemisininArtemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Have Evolved The The Chinese have been using artemisinin to fight malaria since at least 200 BC. Plasmodium Plasmodium have also developed a resistance to artemisinin. resistance to artemisinin Historically Historically single drug therapies or "monotherapies" have been "monotherapies" used to fight malaria, but this has facilitated the plasmodium to develop resistance to each drug. resistance Artemisinin Artemisinin used in combination with other with antimalarial drugs is the preferred treatment. Cause of Malaria Until Until the real causes are causes are known, diseases are typically characterized by their symptoms symptoms. Knowing Knowing their real causes, with the help of Koch’s Postulates gives Postulates, gives a rational explanation explanation why a drug cures fever in one case (malaria caused by the protozoan, Plasmodium Plasmodium) but not in another case (typhoid fever caused by a bacterium, Salmonella Salmonella typhi or Bubonic Plague caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis). Yersinia www.malariasite.com 17 The Biological Causes of Malaria By By studying the blood of people with malaria, Alphonse Laveran (1882) found that malaria was caused caused by Plasmodium, a Plasmodium protozoan protozoan. Ronald Ronald Ross discovered that mosquitoes, which mosquitoes breed in the stagnant water of swamps and marshes, are the carriers of Plasmodium. Plasmodium AntiAnti-Malarial Drugs Target Different Stages in the Life Cycle of Plasmodium Plasmodium Artemisinin Drugs in the Body “Steve” “Steve” Brodie was involved in testing the new antimalarial drugs. In In order to find a consistent and effective treatment for malaria, he devised a method to measure the concentration concentration of the drug in a patient’s patient’s blood. He He learned that the concentration concentration of the drug in a body depended on how the body metabolized that metabolized drug. Not Not only does the drug do something to the body, but the body also does something to the drug. Metabolism of Acetanilide Julius Julius Axelrod joined Brodie to find out why a fever fever reducer, known as acetanilide caused the patient acetanilide to turn blue. They They guessed that acetanilide broke down to acetanilide aniline aniline and the aniline, like the royal purple, transformed the hemoglobin to the bluish methemoglobin. They They were right! They found that aniline was formed in a dog’s body who had been given acetanilide. They They hoped that the acetanilide broke down into aniline and another chemical and that the other chemical was the fever reducer. Indeed, Indeed, the acetanilide was metabolized by the acetanilide body into aniline and N-acetyl p-aminophenol. aniline p- 18 Tylenol N-acetyl p-aminophenol pis also known as acetaminophen acetaminophen. Brodie Brodie and Axelrod found that the acetaminophen acetaminophen blocks fever fever without causing hemoglobin to be converted to methemoglobin. Thus Thus acetaminophen is a good fever reducer and is now called Tylenol Tylenol. AntiAnti-Cancer Drugs: Catharanthus roseus Catharanthus Catharanthus roseus has been used for hundreds of years for the treatment of diabetes. While While testing its effect on diabetes, Nobel and Beer noticed that an extract of Catharanthus Catharanthus roseus reduced the number of white blood cells produced by bone marrow. At At the same time Svoboda, who was also looking at its effect on diabetes discovered that it inhibited leukemia in mice. Vincristine and Vinblastine Are Drugs that Have Been Isolated from Catharanthus Catharanthus Vincristine Vincristine and vinblastine inhibit cancer by disrupting the microtubules (spindle (spindle fibers) necessary for cell cell division. The The inhibition of cell division slows down the growth of cancer cells. Taxol Taxol Is a Drug that is Isolated from Taxus Taxus brevifolia Extracts Extracts from the Pacific Pacific Yew were collected as part of the random collection program of the USDA and National Cancer Institute (NCI). Taxol Taxol is isolated from the bark of the Pacific Yew. Taxol Taxol stabilizes microtubules so microtubules so that they can not depolymerize and thus cell division is cell disrupted. Consequently, Consequently, taxol inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Effects and Side Effects of Chemotherapy Cancer Cancer occurs when cells that typically divide, including including the mucosa cells that line ducts, begin to to divide too frequently. Anti-cancer drugs stop Antithe division of the cancer cells. The side effects of chemotherapy are a result of the drug’s effects on cells that are normally the supposed supposed to divide. For For example, nausea results from the drug nausea inhibiting the division of the cells of the intestinal intestinal mucosa; hair loss is the result of hair follicles follicles no longer dividing in the presence of the drug; and susceptibility to infection is a susceptibility result of the inhibition of the production of inhibition white blood cells in the bone marrow. in Phyton Biotech, formerly called Phyton Inc., is a division of DFB Pharmaceuticals. They synthesize taxol in cell cultures growing in fermentators. 19 Ephedrine Is Isolated from Ephedra equisetina Ephedra The flight-orThe flight-or-flight response response requires enough oxygen to run. It is no surprise that a drug that opens the airways acts on the sympathetic sympathetic nervous system. Bronchial Bronchial asthma is due to a narrowing of the airways narrowing caused by contracted smooth muscles of the bronchi. Ephedrine causes Ephedrine causes the dilation of the smooth muscles surrounding the bronchi by stimulating stimulating the release of noradrenaline and blocking its re-uptake. re- Atropine Atropine and Scopolamine Is Isolated from Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium) Atropine and Atropine and scopolamine scopolamine increase the heart rate because it blocks the (muscarinic) acetylcholine receptor of the paras the parasympathetic nervous nervous system. These These drugs are used to treat people who have an extremely low heart rate low or have suffered from cardiac arrest. High High doses lead to hallucinations. Atropine Is also Isolated from Hyoscyamus niger and Atropa belladonna and Atropa In In general, atropine inhibits the parasympathetic parasympathetic nervous system and tips the balance toward the tips state promoted by the sympathetic sympathetic nervous system. Cleopatra Cleopatra used atropine-containing atropine extracts extracts of the Egyptian henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) to dilate her dilate pupils, in the hope that she would appear more alluring. Women, Women, during the Renaissance, used the atropine-containing juice atropine of the berries of Atropa belladonna Atropa for the same reason. “Belladonna" is Italian for "beautiful lady". Curare is Isolated from Strychnos toxifera and Strychnos Chondrodendron Chondrodendron tomentosum Curare is Curare is painted on the tips of weapons used to paralyze large animals. Curare Curare inhibits the (nicotinic) acetylcholine acetylcholine receptor receptor of skeletal muscle cells cells at the neuromuscular synapse so the muscle does not move in response to neural stimuli. Curare Curare is also used to treat patients who must be completely immobilized during extremely delicate surgery. Capsaicin is Isolated from Capsicum annuum Capsicum Capsaicin Capsaicin produces burning pain by acting on nerves in the mouth, skin and eyes. It also numbs pain. The capsaicin The capsaicin receptor on neurons is the same receptor that that senses temperature temperature heat heat. Capsaicin Capsaicin kills pain by opening Na+ and Ca2+ channels of heat receptors in the skin. The nerves sending pain signals get overwhelmed and the diffuse “heat pain” feels better than the acute muscular pain. Menthol Menthol Is Isolated from the Mint, Mentha Mentha arvensis Menthol Menthol produces a cooling sensation and numbs pain because it binds to the menthol the menthol receptor receptor that is the same receptor as the one that senses cold cold temperature. The The cold sensation from menthol feels better than the pain sensation. 20 Progesterone: Synthesized from Diosgenin Found in Yam (Dioscorea mexicana) Progesterone Progesterone is typically formed by the corpus luteum. luteum. It It prevents ovulation by inhibiting the release of FSH and LH from the FSH th anterior anterior pituitary. Oral Oral contraceptives use progesterone to inhibit inhibit ovulation. They They also include estrogens that are isolated from the urine of pregnant horses. Codeine Is Isolated from the Poppy, Papaver Papaver somniferum Codeine Codeine is used to prevent coughs (antitussive). The The codeine is converted converted to morphine in in the liver by the enzyme cytochrome P 450. The morphine The morphine produced produced directly affects the respiratory centers in the medulla that control the cough reflex. Ouabain is Isolated From Strophanthus gratus Ouabain Ouabain inhibits the Na Na+/K+ ATPase of cardiac muscle cells. This This causes an increase in in intracellular Na+, which which blocks the Na+/Ca2+ transporter, which causes the Ca2+ concentration of the cell to increase, giving stronger, stronger, slower, but more regular contractions. Digitalis Is Isolated from Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Digitalis Digitalis leaves have been used as a folk medicine for congestive congestive heart heart failure (dropsy) for centuries. Digitalis also Digitalis also inhibits the Na Na+/K+ ATPase of cardiac muscle cells. There There is a Close Relationship between Plants and Human Beings 21 Redbud Woods Sustainability at Cornell In my opinion, the sustainability movement at Cornell got its momentum momentum from a number of people who were concerned about saving the trees http://www.sustainablecampus.cornell.edu/ in Redbud http://www.sustainablefuture.cornell.edu/index.php Woods. http://www.cornell.edu/sustainability/ 22 ...
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