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Plasmodium, the protozoan that causes malaria, is killed by___________. A) A) quinine B) streptomycin C) penicillin D) actinomycin E) aspirin Alex Noel and his 1223.5 Pound Pumpkin www.boston.com Thursday 5-7pm To buy tickets, visit: http://baileytickets.universitytickets.com/user_pages/event.asp?id=147&cid=26 To donate directly to Save the Children, visit: https://www.paypal.com/cgibin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=S83WZY86P6Z8S 1 Where are we?
Last Last time I discussed….
the the beauty, nutritional, economic and medical value of plants. Everyone Get Some Coffee? This This time I will discuss…
coffee, coffee, tea, caffeine, opium and the history of the world.
Thank you Manndible for the coffee!!!
www.manndiblecafe.com Caffeine is a Purine that Acts as a Stimulant Coffee Gets Many of Us Through Our Day And We Often Socialize Over Coffee We We Drink Coffee at Work 2 And Study with Coffee Coffee Art Coffee Art Cafegrafia http://www.costaricacoffeeart.com/coffee_art.php All About Coffee 3 The Story of Coffee Begins in Ethiopia www.cia.gov Discovery of Coffee (According to Antoine Faustus Nairon (1671))
One One day, in the hills surrounding the Red Sea, a goatherd named Kaldi, was Kaldi tending his herd when he noticed that his goats were noticed that his goats were dancing dancing around merrily. Upon Upon looking for the cause, Kaldi found that the goats had eaten some berries from a bush growing along the pasture. Kaldi Kaldi tried the berries too and also started dancing. Roasting the Bean and Brewing the Quahweh (the Arabic word for invigorating)
A Sufi monk in a nearby monastery Sufi watched the whole scene. Believing Believing that the berries were the work of the devil, he came out, collected the berries and threw them in the fire to burn them in the fire to burn them. They They made such a wonderful smell that he brewed a drink out of the beans he rescued from the fire. After After drinking the brewed liquid, he, the other monks and the parishioners were invigorated and were able to stay awake during prayers. The The monk then considered the beans to be a gift from God. Coffea arabica is Indigenous to the is Ethiopian Rainforest 4 There are other species of Coffea Coffea found found in Africa. Coffea Coffea liberica and and C. Arabica x C. liberica = C. robusta C. The Robusta Beans (Seeds) are Rounder than the Arabica Beans (Seeds) and Higher in Caffeine Two Beans (Seeds) Used to Make Coffee Lie Within the Red Fruit The Fossil Evidence Suggests that Humans (Ardipethecus ramidus kadabba) also Originated in The Rainforests of Ethiopia Which raises the question: Could the coffee tree, with its chemicals that keep us alert, be The Tree of Knowledge? The 5 The Origin of Brewing or Steeping in China
The Sufis The Sufis expanded all the way to China by the 1200s where they probably learned the practice of steeping steeping plant parts in boiling water to extract the essence to be used for medicinal purposes medicinal purposes. Shen Shen Nong (2737 BC), who is known as the founder of Chinese Medicine and Agriculture, discovered the value of brewing when tea leaves accidentally fell in a pot of water that was boiling outside. He He tasted the beverage and liked its stimulating effect. The Cultivation of Coffee
The Sufis The Sufis were interested in alchemy: “The “The Sufi master operates upon the base metal of the soul of the disciple and with the help of the spiritual methods of Sufism transforms this transforms this base metal into gold.” The The Sufis worked and enjoyed their family during during the day and prayed at night and the coffee probably kept them awake during their evening prayer meetings. Moreover, Moreover, the transformation that took that place during the roasting of coffee mirrored the transformation that they hoped would transformation take place in the human soul. Coffee Coffee probably became important enough for the Sufis to begin cultivating it by the late 1400s. The Spread of Coffee Drinking through the Ottoman Empire
By By 1511, coffee drinking spread to Mecca, Mecca which was to become part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Coffee drinking was alternately banned and legalized in Mecca and there were fierce debates over its risks and risks benefits. The intense controversy stimulated even more coffee drinking even more coffee drinking. By By 1544, so many people were drinking coffee that the cultivation of coffee, as opposed to cultivation the gathering of wild beans, became gathering became profitable. The Imam introduced coffee plants for cultivation into Yemen (Mocha) from Yemen Ethiopia, “from which the population will derive great benefit.” Soon Soon after, coffee drinking spread rapidly throughout the Ottoman Empire. A Coffee House in the Ottoman Empire 6 Turkish Coffee With the Growth of the Ottoman Empire as well as Trading Companies in the 17th Century, Europeans Got Their First Taste of Coffee Turkish Coffee Video http://www.ineedcoffee.com/04/turkishcoffee/ Names Names given to the invigorating beverage (quahweh, in Arabic): Turkish: kahweh Turkish: kahweh French: French: café Italian: Italian: caffé German: German: kaffe Dutch: Dutch: koffie English: English: coffee Dutch East India Company
In In the 1620s, although coffee was virtually unknown back in Europe, the Dutch East India Company which was Company, which was chartered chartered in 1602, began to trade coffee from Yemen throughout the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The The Port of Mocha in Yemen had a monopoly monopoly on the trading of coffee. Coffee as a Medicine
When When coffee first arrived in England, it was considered a medicine. In In the days of blood-letting and bloodpurging purging, doctors steeped in Galen’s teachings, used coffee as an emetic, emetic a substance that causes one to vomit. substance that causes one to vomit The The doctor administered an electuary electuary consisting consisting of butter, honey, sallet oil and coffee grounds to the patient and then delivered it using a provang, provang which is a three-foot long flexible threewhalebone with a silk tip which was inserted into the stomach through the mouth. Provang Provang (or Probang), Invented by Walter Rumsey I imagine that the coffee electuary inserted with the provang was a very effective emetic. 7 William Harvey Loved Coffee
William William Harvey, the physician who described the circulation of the blood, circulation drank drank the coffee. John Aubrey wrote that Harvey was “filled with energy of a “filled high output kind” and “his thoughts “his working would many time keepe him working would many time keepe him from from sleepinge.” Some Some people say that Harvey was led to the idea of the circulation of the blood from experiencing a coffee rush. coffee Harvey Harvey left in his will 58 pounds of coffee for his colleagues at the London Society of Physicians to drink once a month in his memory. Penny Universities
Coffee Coffee eventually became a recreational recreational beverage in England. Coffee Coffee houses were places that people could gather, remain sober and talk amongst themselves well into amongst themselves well into the the night. The The coffeehouses were often called “Penny Universities”, because the admission cost was a penny, but the knowledge that could be gleaned from the social intercourse was immeasurable. Royal Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge
Arthur Arthur Tillyard’s Coffee House was where the Oxford Coffee Club met. The The members of this club, including Robert Boyle, became the founders of the Royal Royal Society of London. Lloyds of London
Lloyds Lloyds of London, the world famous insurance company, started as a coffee house. Edward Lloyd primarily served seafarers and merchants. Lloyd Lloyd would create a list of what each ship was carrying and underwriters would come to his coffee house to sell insurance to those who needed it. 8 TIP: To Insure Promptness
The The custom of tipping may tipping have originated in the English coffee houses. A small box hung near the small counter with the words To counter with the words "To Insure Insure Promptness" (TIP) inscribed on them. Customers Customers dropped money in the box to encourage fast service. An An Advertisement on the Virtues of Coffee by a Coffee House Owner
But, not everybody saw the virtues… The Effect of Coffee on Sex?
In In England, women were not allowed in coffee houses and did not see the same virtues. In In 1674, the Women's Petition Women's against against Coffee was published. Th The document asserted that th coffee coffee caused impotence. impotence They They complained that the men came home from the coffee houses “with nothing moist but their snotty Noses, nothing stiffe but their Joints, nor standing but their Ears.” The Effect of Coffee on Sex?
The The men responded with the Men's Men's Answer to the Women's Women's Petition against Coffee Coffee which claimed that women should be thankful for coffee, as it was in fact an aphrodisia aphrodisiac. The The men claimed that coffee “makes “makes the erection more Vigorous, the Ejaculation more full, adds a spiritualescency to the Sperme….” Mens' Answer Women's Petition http://www.philosophersguild.com/index.lasso?page_mode=Product_Detail&item=0526 …which reminds me of another book… 9 Coffee Houses were Places for Political Discussion
Coffee houses contributed to England’s political freedom as they served as a venue to discuss politics. By 1675, so many people were discussing, deliberating and debating ideas about politics and freedom that ideas about politics and freedom that threatened the monarchy that King Charles II issued the 'Proclamation for the Suppression of Coffee Houses' to suppress the free flow of ideas. However, coffee house patrons from both ends of the political spectrum rebelled. Eleven days later the coffee houses were reopened. Coffee Reaches Vienna
In In 1683, the Turkish army stood outside Vienna preparing for a siege. The The Viennese army sent Franz Georg Kolschitzky, Kolschitzky, disguised in a Turkish uniform, through enemy lines to alert the Polish army. The The Turkish army was routed and all their coffee beans were left behind. Thinking Thinking that the beans were camel fodder, the winning troops began to burn it. Kolschitzky, Kolschitzky, who had once been a coffee house keeper in Istanbul, recognized the smell of roasted coffee beans, stopped the burning, saved the beans and opened the first coffee house in Vienna. Unlike Unlike the Turks, Kolschitzky filtered the coffee he served and added milk. added Coffee Reaches Germany
Coffee Coffee houses became popular in Germany by 1721. Johann Johann Sebastian Bach and Christian Henrici (1732) wrote the Coffee Cantata. Coffee “Dear “Dear Father, do not be so strict! If I can’t have my little demi-tasse of coffee three times a day, I’m just like a dried up piece of roast goat! Ah! How sweet coffee tastes! Lovelier than a thousand kisses, sweeter far than muscatel wine! I must have my coffee, and if anyone wishes to please me, let him present me with— with—coffee!” Beer Gardens
Not everybody was happy about coffee houses houses becoming so popular at the expense of pubs and beer gardens. Frederick the Great Was Worried About Germans Drinking Too Much Coffee
Frederick Frederick the Great (1777) proclaimed: “It is “It disgusting to notice the increase in the quantity of coffee used by my coffee used by my subjects, subjects, and the like amount of money that goes out of the country in consequence. My people My must drink beer. His Majesty was brought up on beer, and so were his ancestors.” Kaffeeklatsches
• Frederick the Great made coffee roasting illegal. • However the the Germans loved their Kaffeeklatsches, and people drank illegal coffee, until the laws were repealed. 10 The Yemani Coffee Monopoly
The The Yemenis had a monopoly monopoly on the coffee trade. It It was illegal to transport fresh coffee beans and live coffee plants out of Yemen coffee plants out of Yemen. The The Yemenis partially boiled or roasted the coffee beans that were being traded to Europe in order to prevent anyone prevent anyone from germinating germinating the seeds and usurping their monopoly on coffee. The The Introduction of Coffee Plants Throughout the World
In In 1616, Dutch traders smuggled a coffee plant out of the Port of Mocha and grew it in Java. They They started plantations in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1658 using cuttings from the original tree. In 1699, they th 1699 th began setting up coffee plantations in Java, Sumatra, Timor and Bali. The The first coffee beans and a coffee plant from Java reached the Amsterdam Botanical Garden in 1706. Cuttings Cuttings from this plant made their way to other botanical gardens throughout Europe. A Coffee Plant Goes to Paris
One One cutting from the coffee plant in the Amsterdam Botanical Garden was given to King Louis XIV in 1714 and planted in le Jardin des Plantes in Paris. A Naval Officer named Mathieu Naval Gabriel de Clieu asked for the King's permission to take a cutting of this plant back to Martinique. Although the King refused his request, de Clieu stole a cutting from the plant. A Coffee Plant Goes to Martinique
de de Clieu (1723) headed back to Martinique with his newly procured coffee cutting. He He kept the shoot in a glass cabinet which he would bring up to the deck each day so it could be warmed by the sun. During During the journey, de Clieu and his crew fought off pirates, but after that, a storm shattered the glass cabinet and the water supply was so low that de Clieu had to share his water ration with his coffee plant. Coffee Plants Go to St Dominique and Guadeloupe
When When de Clieu returned to Martinique he successfully cultivated the coffee plant and within two years he had his first harvest. Within three years coffee plantations Within three years, coffee plantations spread spread all over Martinique and to the neighboring islands of St. Dominique and Guadeloupe. The The production of coffee was so successful in the Caribbean that King Louis XIV forgave de Clieu for his earlier transgression and made him governor of the Antilles. Romance and Intrigue Help Bring A Coffee Plant to Brazil
By By 1727, the Brazilian government realized that it was time they joined the coffee market. Brazil Brazil sent Francisco de Mello Palheta on a mission to steal a coffee plant from the French. Using Using his charm, Palheta befriended the wife of the governor of French Guiana. As As a farewell gift, the governor's wife presented Palheta with a coffee cutting concealed in a bouquet of flowers. From From that cutting, the world's largest coffee empire grew. 11 Coffee Comes to Jamaica
In In 1728, Sir Nicholas Lawes, the Governor of the British colony of Jamaica, imported coffee beans and the first first coffee plant into Jamaica from Martinique. Initially, Initially, coffee was grown in the foothills of St. Andrew, but soon coffee growing extended into the Blue Blue Mountains. Blue Blue Mountains of Jamaica The Ups and Downs of the British Coffee Growers
The The British enhanced their position in the coffee race in 1796 when they took control of Sri Lanka from the Dutch. The The British cleared even more land for coffee plantations and land for coffee plantations and the the British briefly became the world's world's largest coffee producer in the 1860s. However However in 1869, a fungus fungus (Hemeleia vastatrix) known as coffee coffee rust caused the coffee plants to lose their leaves. By By 1879, the plants were no longer economically viable. So Britain Turned to Growing Tea Replace Coffee with Tea
Luckily Luckily for the British, a successful marketing campaign led by the British East India Company for tea entitled "the cup that cheers" had laid the foundations for tea to become the British national drink. Tea drinking grew steadily since Tea drinking grew steadily since 1700, 1700, so when the coffee plantations of Sri Lanka, and later India failed, the coffee plants the were uprooted and replanted with tea. However, However, tea became very popular and Britain could not grow enough for its people. 12 The Tea Trade A Trade Deficient: A Plant for a Plant
Looking for something other than a precious metal to balance the tea trade tea trade deficit, deficit, the British began to sell opium grown in India and shipped on British ships, to China. In the 1800s, England was importing so much tea tea from China that there was an enormous trade deficit trade and the British had to pay the Chinese in silver, which was affecting the British economy. The Chemical Essences of Tea and Opium The The First Opium War
The The import of opium into China had been illegal since 1729 and the Qing government tried to enforce the ban on public health grounds since there were approximately two million opium addicts in China. The The Qing government also insisted that British merchants would not be allowed to trade unless they agreed not to smuggle opium. Caffeine Morphine The First Opium War
Not Not wanting to stop the import of opium, which would balance the trade deficit, the British fought the Chinese from 183918391842. 1842. The The British defeated the Chinese and resumed resumed the import of opium into China to balance the trade deficit caused by the importation of tea. In In the first of two Opium Wars, China lost Hong Kong to Britain. The The Second Opium War
The The Opium War was reignited in 1856 to 1860 and the British won again. Because the British Because the British needed needed to balance the trade deficit incurred by the export of so much tea tea from China, they demanded that the opium opium trade be completely legalized in China. 13 Tea and Coffee Contain Caffeine
Britain Britain could trade tea for opium and by the end of the 1800s, tea tea had surpassed coffee as as the national beverage. Caffeine is Caffeine is the active ingredient in the coffee and tea that had the power to change the geopolitical history of the world. Friedrich Runge and His Cat
Friedrich Friedrich Runge was isolating chemicals from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) when a drop accidentally splashed in his eye and he realized that it caused his pupils to dilate. pupils Runge purified atropine from the deadly Runge purified atropine from the deadly nightshade nightshade and entertained people by showing them that he could cause the eyes of his cat to dilate by giving him the cat extract. Johann Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the poet and botanist heard about Runge’s parlor trick through a mutual friend and wanted to meet Runge and see his cat trick. Wolfgang Goethe
Amused Amused by the trick and impressed with Runge’s chemical knowledge, Goethe gave Runge a small box full of the valuable Arabian mocha coffee Arabian mocha coffee beans beans and asked to perform a chemical chemical analysis on them. Within Within a few months, Runge (1819) had extracted and purified caffeine caffeine, the active ingredient from the beans. Caffeine Content of a Cup of Tea or Coffee The Structure and Synthesis of Caffeine
In the late 1800s, Emil Fischer determined the structure of caffeine and was also the first to synthesize it from uric acid acid found in urinary calculi (pebbles). Caffeine is a Purine (P-urine)
“Does “Does your Pepsi lack pep? Is your Coke not the real thing? India's Hindu nationalist movement apparently has the answer: a new soft drink made ft from cow urine.” The The drink called "gau jal", or "gau jal", "cow water" – in Sanskrit is being developed by the Cow Protection Department of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). 14 Coffee Without the Caffeine
Caffeine Caffeine can be chemically removed from the coffee to produce decaffeinated coffee in a number of ways. In In one method, the green beans are first steamed and then the caffeine is extracted by repeatedly caffeine is extracted by repeatedly washing washing the beans in a solvent like ethyl acetate that has a similar similar polarity as caffeine. Caffeine Caffeine Without the Coffee Where Coffee is Cultivated Today The caffeine probably comes from decaffeinated coffee and not from urinary calculi. 15 Coffee Plants Are Chemical Factories
The The roots of the coffee plant take up H2O and NO NO3 and the leaves absorb CO2. CO Using the input of radiant Using the input of radiant energy energy from the Sun, the chloroplasts chloroplasts synthesize carbohydrate (C(H2O)), an organic molecule from CO CO2 and H2O, two inorganic molecules. Plants Plants Are Chemical Factories
Further Further biochemical reactions combine the Nitrogen that was taken up by the roots with the the roots with the carbohydrate carbohydrate made in the leaves to make adenosine monophosphate, monophosphate, (AMP) the precursor of caffeine (C (C8H10N4O2 ). Coffee Flowers Coffee Coffee Berries Kona Coffee Berries 16 After Picking Berries Green Coffee Beans Beans on the Conveyor Before Roasting Beans on the Conveyor After Roasting Roasted Roasted Coffee Beans: The Maillard Reaction
Over Over 800 different chemicals that make up the aroma of coffee form during roasting. Many Many of the chemicals are formed by the Maillard Maillard (non(non-enzymatic browning) reaction between carbohydrates and amino-containing aminosubstances, including amino acids and proteins. Next We Extract the Caffeine and Flavors from the Roasted Beans 17 Paul Revere Made these Coffee Pots Which Gives Rise to the Question—Did Question— Paul Revere Drink Coffee before the Ride? http://www.paulreverehouse.org/ride/ Max Delbruck with a Cup of Coffee Caffeine Caffeine Enters the Body
Caffeine absorption in the small intestine is rapid and reaches 99% in humans in about 45 min after ingestion. The hydrophobic properties of caffeine allow its passage through all biological membranes. There is no blood-brain barrier or placental barrier to caffeine. After drinking one cup of coffee the caffeine concentration in the blood is approximately 0.001 to 0.01 mM. Adenosine Receptors
Caffeine Caffeine potentially has pharmacological actions on a number of receptors in the body but the affinities of many of the putative caffeine receptors are too low to bind caffeine at the too low to bind caffeine at the concentrations concentrations found in the blood (0.001-0.01 mM). (0.001At At physiological concentrations, caffeine acts primarily by binding to the adenosine adenosine receptor. By blocking adenosine receptors, caffeine indirectly affects the action of neurotransmitters. 18 Adenosine in the Forebrain and Hippocampus Causes Sleepiness
Under Under conditions of fatigue and where the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level becomes low, low, adenosine accumulates in the extracellular space. This causes sleepiness. sleepiness During sleep During sleep, adenosine decreases and decreases and wakefulness ensues. wakefulness ensues. Adenosine is a Neuromodulator that Reduces the Concentration of Neurotransmitters in Synapses
Adenosine Adenosine is not a neurotransmitter since it is not stored in nor released from vesicles in response to a depolarization of a presynaptic membrane. It is an informational molecule known as molecule known as a neuromodulator neuromodulator. When adenosine When adenosine binds to its receptor on the presynaptic neuron, it inhibits the release inhibits of most neurotransmitters, resulting resulting in a reduction of glutamate, GABA, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetylcholine in the synapses. Actions of Caffeine and Adenosine
When When caffeine binds to the adenosine receptor, it prevents adenosine from binding, thus neurotransmitter release is not inhibited release is not inhibited. The general The general effect of adenosine in the brain is to inhibit neural activity, whereas the general general effect of caffeine is to increase neural activity.
http://www.howstuffworks.com/caffeine.htm http://www.howstuffworks.com/caffeine.htm Caffeine and Multiple Sclerosis in Mice
Mice Mice with a mutation in the enzyme mutation enzyme that synthesizes extracellular synthesizes adenosine have a lower incidence of multiple sclerosis. multiple Could Could the activation of the adenosine receptor by adenosine allow the cytotoxic cells to pass allow the cytotoxic T cells to pass the the blood brain barrier and enter the brain and spinal cord and kill the oligodendrocytes? Could Could the inhibition of the adenosine receptor by caffeine inhibit cytotoxic T cells from passing the blood brain barrier and consequently reduce the nerve damage caused by the autoimmune response? Caffeine and Multiple Sclerosis in Mice
Drs. Drs. Margaret Bynoe and Jeffrey Mills at the Vet School at Cornell have shown that mice who were given drinking water were given drinking water with with caffeine, which was equivalent to drinking 6-8 6cups of coffee a day, had fewer cytotoxic T cells enter the brain, and were protected from developing multiple sclerosis.
www.news.cornell.edu-April08 19 A Late Night Cup of Coffee 20 ...
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This document was uploaded on 11/09/2010.
- Spring '07