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Unformatted text preview: Clicker Question Under typical physiological (nontoxic) conditions in the brain, caffeine overcomes sleepiness by binding to ___________. A) the GABA-A receptor GABAB) the calcium release channel C) phosphodiesterase D) the adenosine receptor E) all of the above Cornell had made it to the TOP 16 in TBS’s National Rooftop Comedy College Competition! We need YOUR VOTES to advance to the next round! Please sign up and vote using the link below from April 29th to May 3rd! Alpha Zeta Fraternity Proudly Presents: Ag Day When: This Friday, 4/30 Where: AG Quad $5 Lunch Fundraiser for 4-H and Farmers in Need! Includes: Pork BBQ Sandwich Side Slaw Drink Contact: emb273@cornell.edu Activities Include: - Barbecue - Cow Chip Bingo - Ask a Farmer - Petting Zoo Programs include: Tropical Studies in Costa Rica Comparative Wildlife Management in Kenya and Tanzania Wildlife Management in Kenya and Tanzania Independent Field Research in Nepal Pre-Med Clinical Experience and Courses in London or Denmark ... And Many More! Information at 300 Caldwell Hall and www.cuabroad.cornell.edu Where Where are we? Last Last time I discussed… the the economic botany of coffee This This time I will discuss… stem stem cells and cloning Next Next Monday and Wednesday there will be more student presentations and I will hold review sessions. There will be clicker questions. Next Next Friday, which happens to be Slope Day, there is no class! HAVE FUN and BE SAFE!!!!!!!! 1 Fertilization is the Union of the Sperm and Egg Human Embryology: Who’s Facts of Life do We Learn? Science is a human endeavor and the language language we use to describe describe nature is not always objective, in fact, the language of the scientific establishment often supports the entrenched power structure. For example… Typical Scientific Perspective (What Assumptions have been Made about Who and What are Active and Who and What are Passive?) Feminist Feminist Scientific Perspective (What Assumptions have been Made about Who and What are Active and Who and What are Passive?) Active Active Voice: The development of a human being begins when the sperm sperm fertilizes the the egg. egg. Passive Passive Voice: The development of a human being begins when the egg egg is fertilized by the sperm. Active Active Voice: The development of a human being begins when the egg when the egg fertilizes the sperm. Passive Passive Voice: The development of a human being begins when the sperm is sperm fertilized by the egg. Leonardo Leonardo da Vinci (1510): Studying Fetal Development Using Autopsies 2 William Smellie (1754) William Hunter (1774) Studying Live Fetal Development using X-rays XX-Ray of 2 Month-Old Living Fetus Month- Ultrasound to Study Fetal Development Safely X-rays of Fetuses Prior to Hiroshima and Nagasaki Sonogram Endoscopy by Lennart Nilsson Development of Ultrasound 3 http://www.lennartnilsson.com/ Early Stages of Embryo Development are Similar in Different Taxa Karl von Baer (1828-1837) had (1828two little embryos that he forgot to label: “They might be lizards, small birds, or very young mammals. The formation of the heads and trunks in these animals is quite similar….. the feet of lizards and mammals, the wings and feet of birds, as well as the hands and feet of men develop develop from the same fundamental form.” 4 Edwin G. Conklin (1890) Could Trace the (1890) Descendents of Each Cell in the Embryo www.time.com Gastrulation: Gastrulation: Gut Formation Gastrulation Gastrulation is the process though which the spherical blastocyst progresses so that the embryo has a visible pattern that indicates the final final symmetry of the individual. of During gastrulation, During gastrulation, the embryonic migrate cells migrate like amoeba to positions where they will form the ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm and yolk sac and then sheets of these tissues expand, contract and move past each other to form the various organs of the body. www.gastrulation.org/ stemcells.nih.gov Science Waxes and Wanes: Embryogenesis in the 1940s According to Peter Medawar “Embryogenesis is in some way a model system. It has always been distinguished by the exactitude, even punctitio, of its anatomical descriptions. An experiment by one of the great masters of embryology could be made the text of a discourse on scientific method. But something is wrong, or has been wrong. There is no theory of development in the sense in which Mendelism is a theory that accounts for the results of breeding experiments. There has therefore been little sense of progression or timeliness about embryological research. Of many papers delivered at embryological meetings, however good they may be in themselves, one too often feels that they might have been delivered five years beforehand without making anyone much the wiser, or deferred for five years without making anyone conscious of a great loss.” 5 What Physicochemical Factors Induce Cells to Differentiate? Prenatal Development: Differentiation of Nerve Cells Require Chemical Factors Embryology Embryology seemed like a dead end and Viktor Hamburger and Rita LeviLeviMontalcini were tempted to switch to phage work, which was becoming popular at the time. Then Then in 1948, Elmer Bueker (Ø) discovered that grafting grafting a mouse tumor onto a developing chick embryo resulted in the growth growth of nerves into the tumor. Prenatal Development: Differentiation of Nerve Cells Require Chemical Factors Hamburger Hamburger and Levi-Montalcini Levifollowed up on this observation and discovered that the tumor graft caused embryonic tissue of the gonads, thyroid, parathyroid and spleen which parathyroid and spleen, which normally are devoid of nerve connections early in development, to become innervated with sympathetic nerve fibers. They guessed that the tumor was producing and secreting a Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor LeviLevi-Montalcini grew chick embryo cells as a culture in a petri dish. When When she added a tumor to the plate, the cells differentiated into neurons. chemical that stimulated the growth of neurons. Rita Levi-Montalcini Levi- Rita Levi-Montalcini LeviThe Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose Perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse if it th A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. -William Butler Yeats 6 Chemical Identification of Nerve Growth Factor Stanley Stanley Cohen isolated the nerve chemical, known as nerve growth factor (NGF) from the tumor that could cause the cultured cultured cells to differentiate into neurons. He He found that nerve growth factor is a protein that is also produced in smaller quantities by normal cells and is present in in huge quantities in snake venom. Eastern Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Produces NGF in its Venom Informational Molecules Direct the Growth and Differentiation of the Cells in the Embryo When antibodies which When antibodies, which bind to and thus inactivate NGF, are injected into chick embryos, nervous system development is prevented, development indicating that NGF is an important informational NGF informational molecule during embryonic development. The growth factors are paracrine factors When certain cells are cut out of the embryo, neuron differentiation is inhibited. Neuron differentiation is re-established when NGF is injected into the space from which the cells were removed. Thus certain cells in the embryo normally produce and secrete NGF. Nerves grow toward the source of NGF indicating that this informational molecule also guides the differential gene expression, which differentiated cells. gives rise to that diffuse to nearby cells, activating signal transduction chains that result in growth of neurons along its own concentration gradient. Ever say, “What was I just saying…?” “NGF is different from other kinds of brain products. Unlike other formulas NGF enhances brain brain function by actually improving the structure structure of brain cells through enhanced neurite outgrowth. Every aspect of brain function can benefit.” The Development of the Eye Is Marvelous But Not Mysterious During During the development of the eye, certain cells of the brain brain bulge and form what is known as the optic vesicle. When When the optic vesicle comes in contact with the ectoderm optic ectoderm of the head, it secretes paracrine factors that cause the ectoderm in that region to differentiate into the lens of the eye th i diff th th instead of skin epidermal cells. The The lens cells then fold inward and produce other paracrine factors that cause the neural cells of the optic vesicle to neural form the light-perceiving cells of the retina. lightretina The retinal The retinal cells then produce still different paracrine factors that cause the lens to continue differentiating and then the lens lens lens cells secrete still different paracrine factors that cause the outer outer ectodermal cells to differentiate into a cornea. cornea www.vrp.com 7 The Potential of Stem Cells There There are a host of growth growth factors that are produced and secreted by cells in the developing embryo that induce nearby cells to differentiate into specialized cells, tissues and organs. Prior to exposure to growth factors factors, any given cell is capable of differentiating into any cell type in the body. Cells Cells that are capable of dividing and giving rise to a differentiated cell and another cell like itself that can give rise to any cell type is called a stem cell. stem Embryonic Embryonic Stem Cells Stem Stem cells are cells that have the capacity to divide divide for indefinite periods of time. The inner The inner cell mass of an embryo is composed of stem cells known as embryonic stem cells. known embryonic Embryonic Embryonic stem cells contain a complete copy of DNA and each one is capable of differentiating into every cell type and giving rise to complete organism. cell type and giving rise to a complete organism. A cell that can give rise to a complete organism is cell totipotent totipotent. In In the 1950s, F. C. Steward at Cornell isolated single cells from carrots. When provided with the right hormones, the cells formed embryos, which grew into carrot plants. He He concluded that each and every cell is totipotent totipotent and has the potential to give rise to a whole organism. F. C. Steward Sometimes a carrot isn’t just a carrot… 8 Totipotency Identical twins are a demonstration of the totipotency of cells in the inner cell mass. inner cell mass. Given the Right Growth Factors, Each of the Embryonic Stem Cells Can Give Rise to an Organ The Monkey King Pluripotent Stem Cells The The monkey king can turn clumps of hair into anything he desires. Given Given the right growth factors, a totipotent stem cell can be turned into any cell type desired. Since the cells of the inner cell mass do not naturally give rise to trophoblast cells, their potential has been assumed to be limited and thus they are called pluripotent pluripotent stem cells. LineageLineage-Restricted Stem Cells Once Once the inner cell mass differentiates into the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm layers, the cells of these layers are called lineage-restricted lineagestem cells since cells from a given layer cannot readily form any cell layer cannot readily form any cell type type or organ but only the cell types and organs to which they would typically differentiate. The The ectoderm can give rise to nervous tissue, the mesoderm can give rise to muscle and the endoderm can give rise to the reproductive system. Lineage-Restricted Stem Cells Stem cells in the bone marrow are lineagerestricted stem cells that give rise to rise to lymphoid stem cells that can differentiate into lymphocytes and myeloid stem cells that can differentiate into the other types of blood cells. 9 Adult (Non-Embryonic) Stem Cells (NonIn In every body, stem cells in the red bone stem marrow divide to create two million new red blood cells/second to replace the old ones that will become bile in the liver. In In every body, stem cells in our skin divide to create new skin cells to replace the one gram of skin cells that fall off each day. In In every body, stem cells in the mucosa divide stem to produce new mucosa that line the respiratory, digestive and urogenital tracts. In In every body, there are stem cells that divide stem to give rise to hair, muscles or nerves. Males Males have germinal stem cells that germinal continually make new sperm. Totipotency of Stem Cells in Theory and Practice Although in Although in theory every cell that has the full complement of DNA should be able to differentiate into any other cell type, in practice, growth factors in that induce the embryonic stem cells to divide and form any form any organ have been discovered; but the factors that would allow the more differentiated or adult stem any cells to form any organ are only just being discovered. Currently Currently, for example, stem cells isolated from red bone marrow can form red blood cells and liver cells, but not nerve cells. But… But… Reversine and Dedifferentiation Peter Peter Schultz and Sheng Ding (2004) discovered that reversine reversine, a molecule regenerating isolated from regenerating amphibian tails can cause amphibian tails can cause mammalian mammalian cells to dededifferentiate. Reversine Reversine can cause differentiated differentiated cells to dededifferentiate and form stem cellstem cell-like cells capable capable of re-differentiating into reother cell types. Reversine 2010 ExperimentallyExperimentally-Induced Differentiation of Stem Cells for Therapeutic Uses Mouse Mouse embryonic stem cells can be cultured easily. When When they are treated with basic fibroblast growth factor basic and platelet-derived growth factor, they differentiate into plateletglial glial stem cells. On On the other hand, when the embryonic stem cells are cultured retinoic with retinoic acid (a metabolite of vitamin A), they neural differentiate into neural stem cells. Differentiation of Stem Cells Therapeutic Therapeutic Cloning in Mice These These neural and glial stem cells, when placed in the brain of degenerative a mouse that has a degenerative brain disease, significantly reduces reduces the symptoms of the disease. These These experimental therapies are easier to perform on mice than in humans because all the lab mice are so inbred that they have almost identical immune systems, so the added almost stem cells are not viewed by the host as being foreign and destroyed by the cytotoxic T cells of the immune system. 10 Therapeutic Cloning in Humans If If one knew all the paracrine factors paracrine necessary necessary to produce a given cell type, then any cell type could be created from an embryonic stem cell or de-differentiated cell. deFor example, New New neurons could be made for people with degenerative brain disorders. New New pancreatic cells could be made for people with type I diabetes. New New oligodendrocytes could be made for people with multiple sclerosis. New New glial cells and neurons could be made for people with Parkinson’s disease. Human Therapeutic Cloning Since Since humans are not inbred and/or genetically identical (yet), a human’s immune system would immune reject foreign stem cells. cells. Human Therapeutic Cloning that that are genetically identical to the recipient. One One way to accomplish this is to transplant a transplant somatic nucleus from a somatic cell of the person who needs the stem cells into an activated enucleated activated oocyte from a donor. The The activated oocyte, with the new nucleus will divide. oocyte, When it reaches the blastocyst stage, the embryonic stem cells are removed and cultured on plates. One way to get around this is to make stem cells One way to get around this is to make stem cells Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease Extract Extract the nucleus from a somatic cell of a patient and transplant the nucleus into a transplant the donor’s activated enucleated oocyte. oocyte. When When it forms a blastocyst, isolate the cells blastocyst, isolate the from the inner cell mass from the inner cell mass. Culture Culture these embryonic stem cells in the right paracrine paracrine factors so that they form dopaminergic (dopaminedopaminergic (dopamine-synthesizing) neurons. Transplant Transplant these neurons into the appropriate region of the patient’s brain. This This procedure has already worked in mice. 11 Could it work for people with Parkinson’s disease like Michael J. Fox and Muhammad Ali? Human Stem Cells Can be Made from “Non“NonHuman” Embryos by Implanting a Human Nucleus in an Activated Cow Oocyte A shortage of the human shortage eggs necessary for therapeutic cloning has led two groups of scientists to make hybrid scientists to make hybrid The The process was approved in England in September 2007. Are Are the embryos human, cow, hybrids or chimeras? www.guardian.co.uk Human Genetics Alert embryos embryos from human skin cells and animal eggs. Hwang Woo-Suk and Snuppy WooHwang WooHwang Woo-Suk began therapeutic therapeutic cloning in in humans. He He had already accomplished the reproductive cloning of a dog, Snuppy, which Snuppy, stands for Seoul National University puppy, and turned his attention to create human embryonic stem cells by transplanting the nuclei of patients into the activated oocytes of donors. Snuppy ((R) was Created from the Nucleus of an Ear Cell of an Afghan Hound (L)) Hwang Woo-Suk—Mission Woo-Suk— Accomplished with Therapeutic Cloning Fig. 3. Patient-specific human NT-hESCs differentiate into tissues from all three germ cell layers… Published by AAAS W. S. Hwang et al., Science 308, 1777 -1783 (2005) 12 Science: Editorial Retraction “The final report from the investigation committee of Seoul National University… has concluded that the authors of two papers published in Science …have engaged in research misconduct and that the papers contain contain fabricated data…. We therefore retract these two retract these papers and advise the scientific community that the results reported in them are deemed to be invalid.” invalid Science Can Be Compromised By Greed On March 17, 2006 Hwang admitted that he had not created human embryonic stem embryonic stem cells cells and the data "I were fabricated. "I did not follow the procedures that a scientist should follow and I was was driven by greed." Stem Cell Debate Alternatives to Embryonic Stem Cells • Stem cells exist in • other parts of the adult body. These stem cells These stem cells may may not be as lineagelineage-restricted as was once thought. http://www.linesthatdivide.com/ Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Can Reduce Stroke Size in Rats Human Human stem cells taken from umbilical cord blood given intravenously along intravenously along with with mannitol, a chemical that temporarily breaches the blood-brain barrier bloodreduce stroke size in rats (the animal) by approximately 40%. Creating Human Liver Tissue with Umbilical Stem Cells Nico Forraz and Colin McGuckin (2006) created human liver tissue by treating tissue by treating umbilical umbilical stem cells with paracrine factors and grew them in a bioreactor designed by NASA to simulate “weightlessness”. 13 Liver Tissue Regeneration Using Adult Stem Cells G'nther F'rst and Jan Schulte am Esch (2007) have injected adult bone marrow stem cells from a patient into his cancerous liver to regenerate healthy liver tissue in the same patient. Heart Disease is the Number One Killer in the United States and Stem Cells Can Be Used to Regenerate a Dead Heart In In 2007, Doris Taylor removed a dead heart from a dead rat. The The dead heart acted as a mold and Taylor added stem mold and Taylor added stem cells cells to the mold. A live, functioning beating, live, blood pumping heart was formed. Clinical Clinical trials using human bone marrow stem cells to regenerate a damaged heart are underway. http://www.stemcell.umn.edu/ Claudia Castillo news.scotsman.com Claudia Castillo (2008) had a collapsed trachea as a result of tuberculosis and could not work or play with her kids. www.newscientist.com The Guardian Video First Successful Human Organ Transplant (Made from Adult Stem Cells) In In order to prevent rejection by Claudia’s immune immune system, the cells were removed from a section of the trachea from an organ donor, leaving a mold. organ Bone Bone marrow stem cells from Claudia's bone from marrow were grown in the laboratory marrow were grown in the laboratory. The The donor trachea was "seeded" with the bone marrow stem cells and cells taken from Claudia's nose and healthy airways. The trachea was placed into a rotating bioreactor and the cells migrated to the correct locations and began to grow naturally. The The new organ was transplanted into Claudia. transplanted 14 Success!!! Success!!! Embryonic Stem Cells Created from Differentiated Adult Cells • Stem cell research comes full circle and differentiated adult cells can be used to make embryonic stem cells. “Once the kinks are worked Once the kinks are worked out out, ‘the whole field is going to completely change,’ says stem cell researcher Jose Cibelli of Michigan State University in East Lansing. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSC) (IPSC) In In November 2007, Shinya Yamanaka and James Thomson independently showed that human human skin cells from the foreskin of a newborn, the face of a 36 year old woman and the connective tissue of woman, and the connective tissue of a 69 year old man can be converted 69 into embryonic stem cells (which embryonic induced they call induced pluripotent stem cells, IPSC) by transforming them with retroviruses carrying retroviruses genes four genes that are usually • ‘‘People working on ethics People will have to find something new to worry about.’” switched off after embryonic differentiation. http://www.leemsilver.net/ 15 RetrovirusRetrovirus-Induced Pluripotent Stems Cells Can be Cancerous Since Since retroviruses insert insert themselves randomly into the genome, they can cause cancer if they insert themselves into tumor suppression genes. By By contrast, adenoviruses adenoviruses, which also can be used to transform cells, do not insert themselves into the host genome. Induced Pluripotent Stems Cells Using Adenoviruses instead of Retroviruses In In September 2008, Stadtfeld et al. used an inactivated adenovirus adenovirus that expresses the four genes necessary to induce mouse embryonic stem cells mouse embryonic stem cells and and produced embryonic stem cells from skin and liver cells. They They are trying to induce embryonic stem cells by transforming cells with the DNA necessary for inducing embryonic stem cells without using any viral DNA. Producing Sperm and Eggs from Skin Cells Within 5Within 5-15 years, the embryonic stem cells formed from the skin cells will be able to be transformed into sperm sperm or eggs or eggs. This will help infertile This will help infertile heterosexuals heterosexuals as well as gay, lesbian and transgender couples who want to have their own biological children. It It would also make it possible for a person to be both the egg and sperm donor, giving the term “single parent” a whole new meaning. I’m My Own Grandpa: Genealogy Chart http://www.hinxtongroup.org/ http://www.joe-ks.com/MultiMedia/RedneckGenealogy.htm Therapeutic vs. Reproductive Cloning Stem Stem cells made from an individual’s own nucleus and placed into an oocyte can be used to form, in theory, any cell, tissue or organ type that may be needed by that person. Thi This type of cloning is called therapeutic cloning th because the blastocyst is harvested to make stem cells and does not develop into an individual. If If the oocyte with a transplanted nucleus was implanted into implanted into a uterus or otherwise allowed to develop into an individual, this would be reproductive reproductive cloning. Reproductive Cloning The The main reason to clone plants or animals is to mass produce organisms with desired qualities. When When one relies on sexual reproduction, then introducing one runs the risk of introducing variability and breeding out the desired traits during and meiosis and fertilization. While While governments have enacted legislation to slow down, limit or ban cloning experiments outright, it is clear that cloning will be a part of our lives in the future. However However the directions that cloning technology will take has yet to be determined and your your input is welcomed. 16 Ian Wilmut and Dolly Endangered Animals Can Be Cloned In 2001, scientists at announced the birth of announce th bi the first the first clone of an endangered endangered animal, a gaur baby bull gaur (a large wild ox from India and southeast Asia) named Noah. http://www.advancedcell.com/ Advanced Advanced Cell Technology, Inc., Mammary Gland DrugDrug-Sniffing Dogs Cloned in Korea in April, 2008 Hwang WooHwang Woo-Suk is still active. He cloned seven Labrador retrievers for the Korean Customs Service from nuclei from ea cells ear cells from Chase, an Chase an expert drugexpert drug-sniffing dog. The cloned dogs cost between $100,000 and $150,000 each. The The seven dogs have all been given the same name— name—Toppy, which is derived from the words Tomorrow and puppy. Booger, Bernann, the Surrogate Mother and the Cloned Puppies www.foxnews.com Bernann Bernann McKinney was so bereft when her pit bull terrier Booger died that she sold her house to pay for the creation of clones of Booger. Using Using nuclei from cells in Booger’s ear, five clones were born on August 5, 2008. Lancelot Encore—A $155,000 Puppy Encore— On January 28, 2009, a year after their beloved yellow Labrador retriever, Lancelot died, Edgar and Nina Otto welcomed a cloned copy named Lancelot Encore into their home. www.msnbc.msn.com 17 Should Neanderthals and Woolly Mammoths be Cloned? Human Cloning: Welcome to the Clinic Human Human cloning would be in like in vitro fertilization (IVF), except a diploid somatic nucleus would be be transplanted into an activated enucleated oocyte instead of a sperm being injected into a nucleated oocyte. Imagine… Imagine… www.cbsnews.com discovermagazine www.slate.com www.archaeology.org A Nucleus is Isolated from a Somatic Cell of the Person to be Cloned Egg Egg Donor Asks Any Last Minute Questions Egg Donor is Given a Sedative Ultrasound and Aspirator Inserted Intravaginally to Collect Egg from Follicle in Ovary 18 Egg is Withdrawn from Follicle The The Aspiration Machine Pulls the Egg (oocyte) from the Follicle The Eggs Are Enucleated and Incubated to Keep them Fresh A Nucleus From the Person You Would Like to Clone In Inserted Into the Enucleated Egg. Note: This video is really ICSI with a nucleated egg and sperm. The Somatic Nucleus to be Cloned is in the Egg The Egg Divides: 2-Celled Embryo 19 And Divides… And Forms a Blastocyst.. The Desired Embryo is Chosen The Embryo Is Placed in the Uterus of the Egg Donor or a Surrogate Mother …or …or an Artificial Womb Bathed in Oxytocin, Nutrients, Oxygen, Vitamins, Antibodies to All Known Diseases, Surrounded by Music and PrePreCoaching for the SATs… Ectogenesis: Ectogenesis: Embryogenesis Outside a Body 20 In 1961, Daniele Petrucci Grew a Human Embryo for 29 Days in vitro in Artificial Womb for Opossums Dr Daniele Petrucci, 1961. Grows 29 day old embryo in vitro PBS BMJ The Glass Womb Life Magazine September 10, 1965 A Womb with a View Will Pregnancy Become Obsolete? Yoshinori Yoshinori Kuwabara (1997) created an artificial artificial womb, which was able to sustain kids (fetal goats) for several days. A Womb with a View Will Pregnancy Become Obsolete? HungHung-Ching (Helen) Liu of Weill Medical College College of Cornell University has built an artificial artificial uterus. Slate www.nytimes.com http://artificial-womb.com/ www.australiangeographic.com sharks http://artificial-womb.com/ www.ivf.org/liu.html Infertile or Gay Couples Could Gestate Their Own Children “I believe…we could possibly have an artificial have an artificial uterus uterus so then then you could grow a baby to term." 21 ProPro-life and Pro-choice? ProWith an artificial uterus, unwanted fetuses could be removed from a woman and placed in an artificial artificial womb where it could be brought to term. After it is “born,” the laboratorylaboratory-grown fetus could then be adopted by a loving family. Pro-life and Pro-choice Guardian 'pity this busy monster, manunkind' “A “A world of made is not a world of born” not world of born -e. e. cummings An out of body experience? http://www.clonaid.com/news.php 22 http://www.clonaid.com/news.php Clonaid Clonaid Clonaid announced the birth of the "first human clone“, named Eve on December 26th 2002. Clonaid Clonaid announced a second birth to a Dutch lesbian woman early in January 2003. Clonaid Clonaid announced a third clone born to a Japanese couple who "cloned their dead son killed in an accident.” Clonaid Clonaid announced the birth of two others in January 2003. All All five babies were said to be well but with no independent verification whatsoever. The The United Nations Report (2007) “Although reports claiming the growth of cloned human embryos into fetal stages or beyond have not been substantiated, many predict that the birth of a human clone is inevitable.” www.ias.unu.edu 111th Congress H. R. 110. Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2009 Human Cloning Foundation Cloning Cloning is a legitimate treatment treatment of infertility. Cloning Cloning can be used to replace a replace lost loved one with a twin, for example, a child accidentally and tragically killed in a car accident. Human cloning will unleash a Human torrent of research that will benefit mankind by exploding the knowledge knowledge of medicine and biology. Human Human cloning can take a 6565turn yearyear-old and turn the age of unreasonable to expect that in the future we can turn the age of the 65-year-old back to 25! 65-year- http://www.washingtonwatch.com/bills/show/111_HR_110.html http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill=h111-110 http://www.opencongress.org/bill/111-h110/show thomas.loc.gov that person back to zero –to the one cell stage. It is not http://humancloning.org/ http://humancloning.org/ 23 Stemagen Corporation Stemagen announced on January 17, 2008 that it had become the first in the world to create, and th fi th meticulously meticulously document, a cloned human embryo using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). http://www.stemagen.com/ Human Cloning Is Is human cloning a dream of a nightmare? Have Have humans been cloned already or are the claims a hoax? hoax? Do Do you think that human cloning will affect your life? What What do or did respected biologists (e.g. Francis Crick, Richard Dawkins and E. O. WilsonØ) think about human cloning? Declaration in Defense of Cloning and the Integrity of Scientific Research The The following declaration is from Free Inquiry Magazine, Volume Volume 17, Number 3. (www.secularhumanism.org) (www.secularhumanism.org We, We, the undersigned, welcome announcements of major advances in the cloning of higher animals. Throughout this century, the physical, biological, and behavioral sciences have placed important new capabilities within human reach. On balance, these advances have these contributed to enormous improvements in human welfare. Where novel technologies have raised legitimate legitimate ethical questions, the human community has in general demonstrated its willingness to confront those questions openly and to seek answers that enhance the general welfare…. dawkins-id-let-daughter-be-cloned 24 Declaration in Defense of Cloning and the Integrity of Scientific Research We We believe that reason is humanity's most powerful tool for untangling the problems that it encounters. But reasoned argument has been a scarce commodity in the recent flood of attacks on cloning. Critics have delighted in drawing parallels to the myth of Icarus and Mary parallels to the myth of Icarus and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Shelley's Frankenstein, predicting terrible consequences if researchers dare to press on with questions whose answers "man was not meant to know." Behind the most vituperative critiques seems to lie the assumption that human cloning would raise moral issues more profound than those faced in connection with any previous scientific or technological development…. Declaration in Defense of Cloning and the Integrity of Scientific Research Deeply rooted as such ideas may be in dogma, we question whether these should be used to decide whether human beings will be permitted to benefit from new biotechnology. As far benefit as the scientific enterprise can determine, Homo as the scientific enterprise can determine, Homo sapiens sapiens is a member of the animal kingdom. Human capabilities appear to differ in degree, not in kind, from those found among the higher animals. Humankind's rich repertoire of thoughts, feelings, aspirations, and hopes seems to arise from electrochemical brain processes, not from an immaterial soul that operates in ways no instrument can discover. Declaration in Defense of Cloning and the Integrity of Scientific Research The immediate question raised by the current debate over cloning is, therefore, do advocates of supernatural or spiritual agendas have truly meaningful qualifications to contribute to that debate? Surely everyone has the right to be heard. But we believe that there is a very real danger that research with enormous potential benefits danger that research with enormous potential benefits may may be suppressed solely because it conflicts with some people's religious beliefs. It is important to recognize that similar religious objections were once raised against autopsies, anesthesia, artificial insemination, and the entire genetic revolution of our day - yet enormous benefits have accrued from each of these developments. A view of human nature rooted in humanity's mythical past ought not to be our primary criterion for making moral decisions about cloning. Lawyers Lawyers Are Already Looking into the Rights of Clones Other Other Reproductive Technologies that Will Affect Your Lives Full Service Reproductive Services The Future? Remove Remove and freeze ovaries of pre-sexual women preso they do not have to worry about pregnancy or abortion. At At the desired time, a woman can combine her egg with sperm (from a partner or donor) using in vitro in fertilization (IVF) techniques. Likewise a man can combine his sperm with an egg from a partner or a donor using in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques. Test Test embryos for desired characteristics using prepreimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Enhance Enhance embryo by injecting desired genes or chromosomes. Use artificial Use artificial womb for gestation to eliminate the inconvenience of pregnancy and formation of stretch marks. Lee Silver Designer Babies 25 Ovaries Can be Removed from Pre-Sexual Woman and PreFrozen until the Eggs are Needed Eliminating the Possibility of an Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Washington Washington Post Dateline Friday, September 24, 2004. “[Ouarda “[Ouarda Touirat] a Belgian woman who had pieces of her before cancer chemotherapy left her sterilized, gave birth yesterday to a healthy baby [Tamara] after doctors transplanted the ovarian tissue back into her abdomen….” www.washingtonpost.com www.msnbc.msn.com www.cbsnews.com people ovaries surgically removed ovar and and frozen seven years ago, Ovarian Cryopreservation In In 2008, after a 10-year career at the Weill 10Medical College of Cornell University, Kutluk Oktay founded the Institute for Fertility Preservation. He He “helped pioneer the technique of ovarian ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation. With children this technique, children and women can undergo a simple laparoscopic procedure to have their ovarian tissue frozen for later ovarian transplantation. Rachael Lehmann-Haupt: LehmannWhy I Froze My Eggs Ovarian Ovarian tissue freezing is still an experimental technique and is utilized when a medical treatment such as chemotherapy or surgery would result in infertility and early newsweek menopause. Transplantation can be done with cbsnews two different techniques…to either transplant the ovarian tissue next to the womb or underneath egg freezing the patient’s skin .” ovarian cryopreservation http://www.newsweek.com/id/195691 www.npr.org Fleur Britten Will ovaries Can be Removed from Pre-Sexual Woman Preand Frozen until the Eggs are Needed Eliminating the Possibility of an Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion? “At age 34, I’m having a panic attack. I might be biologically ready for procreation — past ready, even — but, emotionally, I’m committed to my career, not to The One. I’m still asking, which One? I exist in that “30 is the new 20” generation: perfection-seeking, perfectioncommitmentcommitment-phobic and no way near ready.” women.timesonline.co.uk ovary transplant 26 …and when Reproductive Medicine Gives Equal Time to Men …perhaps the testes (or pieces of the vas of the vas deferens) deferens) will be temporarily removed and frozen from prepresexual boys. The Future is Here: Dr. Jeffrey Steinberg of The Fertility Institutes Interview with Dr. Jeffrey Steinberg January 29, 2009 Eliminate Disease “We “We are pleased to…offer African patients the option of screening and preventing WITH NEAR 100% certainty, the occurrence of sickle cell disease in their pregnancies disease in their pregnancies…. This This combination of sciences offers the opportunity for African couples to both CHOOSE THE SEX OF THEIR BABY and assure that sickle cell disease is not present in the new pregnancy.” Eliminate Sickle Cell Anemia 60 Minutes CBS Healthwatch CNN Sunday Good Morning America Designer Babies Genetic Studies in Elite Athletes Show that Certain Genotypes are Associated with either Superior Power or Superior Endurance “Would you like to know whether you have a genetic advantage in either athletic power or endurance events? These two types of activities utilize muscles differently, and genetic testing can tell you where you have genetic testing can tell you where you have an an advantage. This knowledge will help you focus on sports, events and/or field positions where you have a genetic advantage and therefore may excel. It will also enable you to optimize your training program based on your natural http://www.atlasgene.com/index.php ability.” https://www.23andme.com/gen101/variation/speed/ ACE gene and athletic ability Matt Ridley secure.genomicexpress.com 27 Will Optimizing Event Selection Begin to Take Place at the Embryonic Level? Designer Babies Perhaps a new designer chromosome carrying good looks, looks, intelligence and athletic ability will be injected into the oocyte or maybe just a single gene will be added. Yuppie Eugenics According to Ruth Hubbard (2002), “We Yuppie have entered the era of Yuppie Eugenics. A contemporary, ostensibly voluntary form of older ideas and Yuppie is practices, Yuppie Eugenics is based in modern molecular genetics and concepts modern molecular genetics and concepts of of ‘choice,’ and has begun to raise the high tech prospect of employing prenatal genetic engineering. What it shares with the earlier doctrines is the goal of improving and perfecting human bloodlines and the human species as a whole.” Vanity and Expediency are Highly Valued http://www.zcommunications.org/yuppie-eugenics-by-ruth-hubbard-and-stuart-newman 28 …and so is buying “the best.” The Reaction of Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought You You are a shareholder in the world and have its future in your hands. Although it is often Although it is often stated stated that demand creates supply, it is often the other way around, supply creates demand. When When science produces something, people will buy it. What do You Value about being Human? • How do you measure the value of being human? • Are you willing to cede your input on this question to biotechnologists using a business model to do science? • Are you willing to take the time to maintain and sharpen your knowledge of biology in order to make informed, knowledgeable and wise personal, athletic, business and political decisions that reflect your values about the value of being human? http://www.hgalert.org/ Humor is the Best Medicine Immanuel Kant “Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life.” 29 Albert Einstein (1931) “Concern for man himself and his fate must always form the chief interest of all chief interest of all technical technical endeavors…in order that the creations of our mind shall be a blessing and not a curse to all mankind.” Archibald V. Hill “It is true that scientific research has opened up the possibility of unprecedented good, or unlimited harm, for mankind; but the use that is made of it depends in the end on the mo depends in the end on the moral judgments judgments of the whole community of men. It is totally impossible now to reverse the process of discovery: it will certainly go on. To help guide To its use aright is not a scientific dilemma, but the honourable and compelling duty of a good citizen.” Erwin Chargaff • The goal of science has changed from exploration and explanation (knowledge) to exploitation (intellectual property and profit). “What I have called the change in the moral climate is 1) that the majority [of that Aldous Huxley • scientists] seem to agree that what can be done must be done…” Science-inScience-in-Fiction by Carl Djerassi Science Fiction "I don't try to Bradbury Bradbury has often said. "I try to prevent it." describe the future Ray future," Ray http://www.djerassi.com/ www.raybradbury.com/ 30 I Wish You Enough I wish you enough sun to keep your attitude wish enough bright no matter how gray the day may appear. I wish you enough rain to appreciate the sun wish enough even more. I wish you enough happiness to keep your wish you enough happiness to keep your spirit spirit alive and everlasting. I wish you enough pain so that even the wish enough smallest of joys in life may appear bigger. I wish you enough gain to satisfy your wanting. wish enough I wish you enough loss to appreciate all that wish enough you possess. I wish you enough hellos to get you through wish enough the final good-bye. good- Life is a Journey Birth is a beginning and death a destination; But life is a journey. A going, a growing from stage to stage: From childhood to maturity and youth to old age. From innocence to awareness and ignorance to knowing; From foolishness to discretion and then perhaps, to wisdom. From weakness to strength or strength to weakness and often back again. From health to sickness and back we pray, to health again. From offense to forgiveness, from loneliness to love, From joy to gratitude, from pain to compassion. From grief to understanding, from fear to faith; From defeat to defeat to defeat, until, looking backward or ahead: We see that victory lies not at some high place along the way, But in having made the journey stage by stage sacred pilgrimage the journey, stage by stage, a sacred pilgrimage. Birth is a beginning and death a destination; But life is a journey, a sacred pilgrimage, Made stage by stage...To life everlasting. —Alvin Fine A Method for Eliminating Some MaternallyMaternally-Inherited Diseases The The mitochondrion of the sperm is destroyed upon fertilization and only the maternal mitochondrial DNA is passed mitochondrial to the offspring. There are over 40 diseases, including liver, heart and brain disorders and forms of epilepsy that disorders and forms of epilepsy that result result from mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, which is passed to the offspring through maternal maternal inheritance. If If a woman has one of these diseases, in 3-5 years, she may be able to use the method developed by Doug Turnbull and Patrick Chinnery that is now in the experimental stage: A Method for Eliminating Diseases that are Maternally-Inherited MaternallyAn An embryo is formed by combining the sperm of the sperm father with the oocyte from the mother, we will call oocyte from her mother-1, using in vitro fertilization. A diploid motherin nucleus, containing mother-1’s DNA is removed from motherthe resulting embryo. The The diploid nucleus is inserted into an enucleated enucleated egg donated by a woman, we will call mother-2, who motherhas “healthy mitochondria.” The The offspring will inherit nuclear DNA from the father and mother-1 and mitochondrial DNA from mother-2. mothermotherThe The offspring will not have the maternally-inherited maternallydisease and will potentially get 50% more birthday presents. bbc-1 ivf.net msnbc bbc 31 Do You Think it Look Like the Father or the Mothers? reuters 32 ...
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