Lect. 07 F010

Lect. 07 F010 - Intracellular Compartments and Protein...

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Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting
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Eucaryotic cells contain a functionally specialized set of membrane bounded organelles. Nucleus Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosome Peroxisome endosome free polyribosomes cytosol Plasma membrane Organelles found in a typical animal cell.
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Functions of the Membrane-bounded Compartments of a Eucaryotic Cell   Compartment Main Function Cytosol contains many metabolic pathways; protein synthesis Nucleus contains main genome; DNA and RNA synthesis Endoplasmic synthesis of most lipids; synthesis of proteins for distribution reticulum (ER) to many organelles and to the plasma membrane Golgi apparatus modification, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for secretion or delivery to another organelle Lysosomes intracellular degradation Endosomes sorting of endocytosed material Mitochondria ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation Peroxisomes oxidation of toxic molecules Chloroplasts ATP synthesis and carbon fixation by photosynthesis (in plant cells)
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The function of each organelle is mediated by a unique set of proteins. Cytosol: enzymes of glycolysis tubulins for microtubules actin for microfilaments Nucleus: transcription factors DNA replication proteins Mitochondria: proteins of the respiratory chain Chloroplast: proteins of photosynthesis Endoplasmic integral membrane proteins Reticulum: secretory proteins ER resident proteins - lipid synthesis, glycosylation enzymes Golgi Apparatus: glycosylation enzymes Lysosome: digestive enzymes Peroxisome: oxidative enzymes
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Protein sorting and delivery mechanisms Proteins are translated from mRNAs by ribosomes exclusively in the cytosol Newly synthesized proteins must be transported to correct cellular destination How are proteins delivered to organelles and how do they know where to go? Next lectures will concern protein sorting and delivery mechanisms transport of protein in/out of the nucleus how proteins are targeted and transported across membranes vesicular transport, endocytosis/exocytosis
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Signal sequences direct proteins to correct place within cell. Recognized by specialized receptor proteins that mediate transport.
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Lect. 07 F010 - Intracellular Compartments and Protein...

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