Lecture 9.F10

Lecture 9.F10 - Neuroscience 106: Lecture 9 -...

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Neuroscience 106: Lecture 9 - Neurotransmitters and GPCRs ANNOUNCEMENTS: Midterm Thursday, Oct. 28 th (50 multiple choice questions). Bubble in your answers fully in No. 2 pencil as the Scantron reader is a bit finicky. Covers Bear et al. Ch. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Do the "Ion Problems" worksheet. Take the practice exam before your discussion section meets. TODAY'S LECTURE: I. Neurotransmitters A. A neurotransmitter is a chemical released by neurons in response to depolarization, which produces an effect (usually a rapid effect) on another neuron. B. Peptide neurotransmitters 1. They are chains of amino acids (which is the defining characteristic of a peptide). 2. They are synthesized solely in the soma of neurons . 3. They are released from secretory granules . 4. An example of some peptide neurotransmitters: a. Opiate transmitters (they bind to the same receptors as morphine). 1. Enkephalins 2. Endorphins b. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) 1. NPY is the most abundant peptide transmitter in the brain. 2. It is made up of 36 amino acids and thus is one of the larger peptide transmitters. 3. NPY stimulates feeding behavior in some areas of the brain. C. Non-peptide neurotransmitters 1
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2. Non-peptide neurotransmitters can be synthesized in the soma or in the terminal. 3. Some examples of non-peptide neurotransmitters. .. a. Amino acid transmitters 1. Glutamate (the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain). 2. gamma-amino-butyric-acid ( GABA : the primary inhibitory transmitter found in the mammalian brain). 3. Glycine (an inhibitory transmitter found mostly in the spinal cord). b. Amines 1. Catecholamines 1. Dopamine (DA) 2. Norepinephrine (NE) 3. Epinephrine (E: which is also a hormone) 2. Acetylcholine (ACh: the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction to produce muscle contractions [in contrast it inhibits heart rate]). 3. Serotonin (5-HT: which acts on 14 known receptors subtypes, the most of any known neurotransmitter. It is considered to be an inhibitory neurotransmitter). c. ATP (ATP is also used as a cellular source of energy). d. Nitric oxide (NO: a gaseous molecule that can thus diffuse through the neural membrane. It can be synthesized in the soma and diffuse back to a presynaptic terminal.) e. Endocannabinoids (they bind to the same receptors as cannabis). 2
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2010 for the course CBNS 106 taught by Professor Korzus during the Fall '08 term at UC Riverside.

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Lecture 9.F10 - Neuroscience 106: Lecture 9 -...

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