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Lecture 18.F10 - Neuroscience 106 Lecture 18 Cortical...

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Neuroscience 106: Lecture 18 - Cortical Mechanisms of Motor Control ANNOUNCEMENTS: The Final exam is scheduled for Thursday, December 9 from 11:30 AM - 2:30 PM. Again, for the final exam you need to fully bubble in the correct answer with a number 2 pencil. Also, recall that those missing the Final Exam will automatically have a 5% to 10% reduction of their score on the makeup Final Exam. Exceptions to this deduction are very rarely granted but it helps to ask ahead of time. TODAY'S LECTURE: Cortical Mechanisms of Motor Control I. Cortical mechanisms of motor control. A. The types of motor control that we will discuss are motor acts that particularly involve the hands and face. These motor acts are complex, learned acts such as writing, typing, playing the piano (hands), and the spoken language (face). B. Not all parts of the cortex are involved in these types of motor acts. C. Below is a diagram of a lateral view (side view) of a human brain depicting in simplified form the areas of the cortex involved in these types of motor acts. 1
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Hand Premotor Cortex Posterior Parietal Cortex Primary Motor Cortex Primary Sensory Cortex Central Sulcus Spinal Cord Brainstem Cortical spinal tract (aka pyramidal tract) 2
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1. The central sulcus divides the frontal and parietal lobes. 2. The primary motor cortex (1 ° motor cortex) contains neurons that project directly to α -motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. The axons of these cortical neurons form what is known as the pyramidal tract , until they reach the junction of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. At that point, the axons cross the midline and form what is called the pyramidal decussation and then form the lateral corticospinal tract after crossing (same axons with different names at different points) before synapsing on the α -motor neurons of the ventral horn. 3. The primary somatosensory cortex (1 ° somatosensory cortex) is, by definition, the first cortical area receiving synaptic input conveying somatosensory information. (Note that primary visual cortex is the first cortical area receiving visual information). 4. The 1 ° motor cortex and 1 ° somatosensory cortex are both somatotopically mapped , and these maps are in parallel. There are projections from neurons in 1 ° somatosensory cortex to neurons in corresponding regions of 1 ° motor cortex. 5. Neurons in the premotor cortex project to neurons in 1 ° motor cortex.
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