LecKra1_2 - October 3, 2007 18:24...

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Unformatted text preview: October 3, 2007 18:24 WorldScientific/ws-b9-75x6-50 LecKra1˙2 1 Lecture Notes Jagiellonian University Krakow 2007 Material selected from the book: Statistical Thermodynamics and Stochastic Theory of Nonequilibrium Systems Werner Ebeling and Igor Sokolov World Scientific Singapore 2005 October 3, 2007 18:24 WorldScientific/ws-b9-75x6-50 LecKra1˙2 2 October 3, 2007 18:24 WorldScientific/ws-b9-75x6-50 LecKra1˙2 Chapter 1 Introduction (selected topics) 1.1 The task of statistical physics Statistical Physics is that part of physics which de- rives emergent properties of macroscopic matter from the atomic properties and structure and the micro- scopic dynamics. Emergent properties of macroscopic matter mean here those properties (temperature, pressure, mean flows, dielectric and magnetic constants etc.) which are es- sentially determined by the interaction of many par- ticles (atoms or molecules). Emergent means that these properties are typical for many-body systems and that they do not exist (in general) for microscopic systems. The key point of statistical physics is the introduc- tion of probabilities into physics and connecting them with the fundamental physical quantity entropy. 3 October 3, 2007 18:24 WorldScientific/ws-b9-75x6-50 LecKra1˙2 4 Introduction (selected topics) atomistics → statistical mechanics → thermodynamics and transport The task is to construct the bridge between micro- physics, i.e.properties and dynamics of atoms and molecules with macrophysics, i.e. thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, electrodynamics of media microphysics → statistical physics → macrophysics Mmacrophysical properties = properties which are determined by the interaction of very many particles (atoms, molecules), in contrast to properties which are characteristic for one or a few particles. A macrosystem is a many-body system which is de- termined by the basic equations of classical or quan- tum mechanics. Further basic elements of the theory should be the laws of interaction of the particles as, e.g. the Coulomb law, the symmetry principle and the boundary conditions characterizing the macro- scopic embedding. The problem seems to be practically insolvable, not only for the impossibility to solve more than 10 24 cou- pled usual or partial differential equations but also due to the incomplete knowledge about the initial October 3, 2007 18:24 WorldScientific/ws-b9-75x6-50 LecKra1˙2 The task of statistical physics 5 and boundary conditions. New concepts are needed and it has to be shown that probabilities and/or density operators and entropies may be introduced in a natural way if the dynamics is unstable. The point of view taken in this textbook is mainly classical but the quantum-statistical analysis goes in many aspects in a quite analogous way....
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2010 for the course AEROSPACE AE 1202 taught by Professor Dr.adib during the Spring '10 term at Sharif University of Technology.

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LecKra1_2 - October 3, 2007 18:24...

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