Motivation and Learning.ppt

Motivation and Learning.ppt - Department of Management...

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Unformatted text preview: Department of Management MOTIVATION BADM 66 29 September & 13 October, 2008 James R. Bailey, Ph.D. Tucker Professor of Leadership INTRODUCTION WHAT MOTIVATES PEOPLE? • Survival • Religion • Money (Classical Economics) • Sex (Freud) INTRODUCTION… HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE MOTIVATION? Motivation is the energy one is willing to expend to close the gap between what one has, and what one wants. TWO THEORETICAL SCHOOLS ► Content Theories: Assume human motivation springs from universal needs, and a desire to fulfill those needs ► Process Theories: Assume human motivation springs from either a historical process or a future goal CONTENT THEORIES • Assumes humans possess needs that they seek to fulfill ► Vessels or receptacles that we seek to fill • Tautological ► “Why is she achievement-oriented? Because she has a need to be achieve.” • Paternalistic ► Assumes humans need work to be satisfied Maslow’s Need Hierarchy (1943) • Satisfaction-progression hypothesis 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Affiliation 4. Esteem 5. Actualization • Little empirical support ► Alderfer’s Existence [1 & 2] – Relatedness [3] - Growth [4 & 5] (ERG, 1980) • But, explains individual differences and change over life-span McClellend’s Need Types (1975) ► Generalized, directed goal-oriented personality 1. Power: Need for control and influence 2. Affiliation: Need for social contact, relationships and acceptance 3. Achievement: Need for challenge, problem- solving Measured via Thematic Apperception Test McClellend’s Need Types (1975)… • Thematic Apperception Test CONTENT THEORIES… • Self-Efficacy (Bandura, 1968) ► Process by which belief in one’s own capabilities improves performance • Equity Theory ► Process by which performance is intentionally varied to achieve balance between inputs and outcomes and comparisons of balance between inputs and outcomes • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y ► X managers are authoritative, assuming human motivation is to avoid work; Y managers are participative, assuming humans motivated to enjoy work PROCESS THEORIES • Assumes motivation springs from experiential process • Historical Processes ► Learned behavior • Future Process ► Current behavior instrumental to bring about future state PROCESS THEORIES • Operant Conditioning (Reward, Reinforcement, Behaviorism,...
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2010 for the course BADM 66 taught by Professor Bailey during the Spring '08 term at GWU.

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Motivation and Learning.ppt - Department of Management...

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