wk 1 - SP10 BIPN 102 Dr Fortes TA Tracy Hung Office Hour...

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SP10 BIPN 102 Dr. Fortes TA: Tracy Hung Office Hour:  12-1pm, Sun God Lounge Lecture 1 Outline (3/30/10) Respiratory system Anatomy and Histology Ventilation – mechanics of breathing 2 types of respiratory 1. Cellular respiration: takes place in mitochondria 2. External respiration (what we focus on in this class): takes place in the lungs.  The  uptake of O2 and elimination of CO2.   3 levels of gas exchange 1. Ventilation (Atmosphere to lungs) a. Challenge:  the respiratory system is a dead end system.  Gas uptake and  elimination are both via the same airway 2. Lungs to blood diffusion (blood-gas barrier) a. The driving force is the pressure gradient between the alveoli and blood b. Challenge: i. The velocity of blood at this point is moving very fast and the red blood  cells do not have time to pick up enough O2 from the lungs ii. Matching between ventilation and perfusion must occur iii. Gas is not very soluble in liquid.  And O2 is even less soluble than CO2 at  the same temperature.   The solubility of gas in liquid increases  as  temp decreases  (or as pressure increases )   Ex. Soda loses its  carbonation as you open the can and/or warm it up c. Hemoglobin in the blood helps by having 4 high affinity O2 binding sites in order  to transport the O2.  But hemoglobin also binds CO2 3. Blood to tissue diffusion a. The driving force is the concentration gradient of gases between blood and  tissues. Anatomy - Upper respiratory tract: Larynx, Pharynx, Oral cavity, Nasal cavity (contains hairs and  mucus as protections against particles in the air and warms up the air coming from  outside.  It’s usually infected during a common cold)
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SP10 BIPN 102 Dr. Fortes TA: Tracy Hung Office Hour: 12-1pm, Sun God Lounge - Lower respiratory tract: Trachea, Bronchi, Smaller bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveoli (Alveoli is where gas exchange takes place) - Both trachea and Bronchi contain cilias to filter the bacteria in the air. - Diaphragm: dome shaped muscle that flattens when contracted during inspiration, which increase the volume of the thorax - The right lung is usually bigger than the left lung because of the heart. - Inspiratory muscles: Diaphragm, External Intercostals muscles(major ones) and Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid (minor ones). When external intercostals muscles contract, they open the ribs and lift the sternum. Increases the volume of the cavity in horizontal plane and decreases the pressure to allow air to flow in - Expiratory muscles: abdominal muscles and Internal Intercostals muscles (right behind external Intercostals. Pushes the sternum back and decreases the volume of thorax) - The lower respiratory tract composes of 2 kinds of cells: 1. Mucus producing cell (Goblet cells). mucus traps particles or bacteria in
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2010 for the course BIPN BIPN 102 taught by Professor Fortes during the Spring '09 term at UCSD.

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wk 1 - SP10 BIPN 102 Dr Fortes TA Tracy Hung Office Hour...

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