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Lecture13 - Summary 1 Three types of cytoskeletal filaments...

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Summary 1. Three types of cytoskeletal filaments, protofilaments; 2. Subunits, polymerization, treadmilling, dynamic instability; 1. Intermediate filaments, cell integrity, diseases caused by mutations in the intermediate filament genes 4. Natural toxins and cytoskeleton
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Lecture 13 Cytoskeleton: Regulation by Accessory Proteins
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Dynamics of cytoskeletal filaments: Length Stability Number Geometry By covalent modification of subunits& accessory proteins In a living cell, cytoskeletal filaments are more dynamic: accessory proteins!
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Microtubules are nucleated by a protein complex containing γ -tubulin γ - tubulin ring complex ( γ -TuRC): minus end Subcomplex: accessory proteins bound to γ -tubulins
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Fungi (spindle pole body) and plants (near nuclear envelope) don’t have centrioles but use γ - tubulin to nucleate Centrisomes star-like, “astral” microtubule conformation 2 Centrioles (L-shaped) Microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) Centrosome matrix (50 γ -TuRCs) become basal bodies or mitotic spindles (after duplication)
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Centrioles in a centrosome under EM
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A microtubule array can find the center of a cell Even without centrosome!
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Actin filaments are often nucleated at the plasma membrane “Cell cortex”: shape and movement of the cell surface Spiky bundles: microvilli
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