Ch5 CarbsLipids

Ch5 CarbsLipids - Click to edit Master subtitle style...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style 11/10/10 PowerPoint Lectures for Biology 8th edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions by Joan Sharp The Structure & Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 Powerpoint File Part A 11/10/10 Overview: The Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Within cells, small organic molecules are joined together to form larger molecules Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms Molecular structure and function are inseparable 11/10/10 Macromolecules Macromolecules are formed by covalent bonds between monomers and include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Macromolecules have specific three-dimensional shapes. Different functional groups give local sites on macromolecules specific properties. 11/10/10 Macromolecules Substances found in living tissues wat er Macromolecules are the most abundant of the carbon-containing molecules in a living cell. Figure 3-01 11/10/10 Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks These small building-block molecules are called monomers Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids 11/10/10 Macromolecules: Polymers Table 3-01 11/10/10 Macromolecules: Polymers Classes Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Monomers Polymers 11/10/10 Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers A condensation reaction or more specifically a dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis , a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction 11/10/10 Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Condensation Reaction Hydrolysis Reaction 11/10/10 Macromolecules o Covalent bonds and Macromolecules o Monomers are linked together by covalent bonds to form polymers o Via covalent bonds, atoms connected to one another have flexibility and can rotate around the bond o Polymer chains can bend and twist in several different ways to obtain their functional conformation 11/10/10...
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