Ch17 Gene Exp

Ch17 Gene Exp - From Gene to Protein: Gene Expression...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 11/10/10 PowerPoint Lectures for Biology 8th edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions by Joan Sharp From Gene to Protein: Gene Expression
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11/10/10 Gene Expression Defined: A process that takes the information in a sequence of nucleotides that make up DNA and translates the information to make the cell’s proteins Gene = DNA Protein = an “expressed” gene, a product of that gene’s information
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11/10/10 From Gene to Protein Genes Genes are the link between genotype and phenotype Note: an allele is a gene, a pair of alleles is two genes that have similar but not identical nucleotide sequences Genes are the regions of DNA that dictate a physical attribute of an organism (by the production of specific proteins) and are heritable (passed on to offspring) Hence why DNA is called the “ genetic material Genes can only be transcribed when DNA is NOT tightly
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11/10/10 Gene Expression
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11/10/10 From Gene to Protein Gene Sequence of nucleotides contained in DNA Sequence gets transcribed into RNA mRNA Language: nucleotides Protein Sequence of amino acids designated by the sequence of nucleotides in a gene Precursor: mRNA Language: amino acids Recall: Proteins perform most functions of a cell and give it specific characteristics
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From Gene to Protein DNA RNA PROTEIN A, G, C, T A, G, C, U Glycine, alanine, cysteine, etc…. Double stranded Single stranded 4 levels of structure Nitrogenous base, phosphate, ribose Nitrogenous base, phosphate, ribose Alpha carbon, R group, carboxyl, amino termini 5’, 3’ ends Phosphodiester linkage 5’, 3’ ends Phosphodiester linkage N-term, C-term Peptide bond Deoxyribose (missing 2’ OH) Ribose (has 3’ and 2’ OH groups)
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11/10/10 From Gene to Protein Central Dogma The flow of information from DNA to protein DNA can replicate itself and the information it contains can be used to make RNA, but the reverse is not true…. . The information in RNA or protein does not allow you to generate the initial DNA strand
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11/10/10 From Gene to Protein To get a protein Transcription must occur 1st Transcription : the generation of RNA from a DNA template Occurs in the nucleus (for eukaryotes) Requires RNA polymerase (not DNA polymerase) Translation must occur 2nd Translation : reading the nucleotide sequence of mRNA and ordering the correct amino acids to generate a polypeptide (protein) Occurs in the cytoplasm
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11/10/10 Transcription What is transcription? It is the DNA- directed synthesis of RNA Not all DNA gets transcribed, only genes do !!!!!
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Transcription versus Replication REVIEW: DNA Replication versus Transcription Replication Makes a new DNA strand from a DNA template Uses DNA polymerase Transcription Makes a new RNA strand from a DNA template Uses RNA polymerase
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Ch17 Gene Exp - From Gene to Protein: Gene Expression...

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