jazz notes 2 - Congo Square A place where slaves were...

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Congo Square A place where slaves were permitted to dance Now called Louis Armstrong park ring shout --has a cluster of individuals moving in a circular pattern. Comes from a ritual African ceremony New Orleans City Council 1817 designated Congo square as the official site for slave dances Other parts of the country did not permit this and outlawed any African elements in the music of slaves. New Orleans Latin-Catholic influence was tolerant
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Minstrel Shows Developed before the Civil War (1861-65) Placed white performers in black makeup, where they mimicked, ridiculed, & made fun of the music, dance and culture of the slave population. Replaced by vaudeville by 1900 Often the writer of the music had little knowledge of southern black music. Most composers were from the Northeast. Ex. Stephen Foster. “Who Dat” was originally found in minstrel shows, a racially charged joke that went, “Who Dat” with the other responding “Who Dat say Who Dat?”
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Fisk Jubilee Singers A significant departure from the minstrel shows – white audiences didn’t expect this kind of singing Swing Low Sweet Chariot (1910) Formed as a fund-raising group 1865 Name came from Leviticus, year of “jubilee” in which all slaves would be freed.
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Work Songs More purely African in nature, almost no American or European influence. Leroy Miller and a Group of Prisoners; “Berta, Berta” recorded in the 1950s at the Parchman farm in Mississippi. This is a work song performed in a loose call-and- response manner. A Mississippi prison work gang recorded it. Notice the steady tempo and repetition of the words: the work performed reflects the tempo. Also listen to the bent or blue notes that give it the sound of the blues. The singers also perform the melody slightly behind the beat.
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Great Migration (Diaspora) African-Americans moved north due to racial strife, (Jim Crow laws) seeking better jobs and a better quality of life. Anti-immigration legislation in 1924 led to worker shortages. De Facto vs. De Jure segregation Affected Musicians
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Jazz was not an accident Reasons for growth and development
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Turn of the century Black culture had developed a musical system very attractive to all people.
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jazz notes 2 - Congo Square A place where slaves were...

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