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DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

# DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT - PGE 424 PETROPHYSICS PROF M M...

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PGE 424 PETROPHYSICS PROF: M. M. SHARMA MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ANALYSIS Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering The University of Texas Austin, Texas, 78712

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THEORY I. Experience 1 1. Understand the concept Density is defined by the fraction of unit mass per unit volume. To calculate the density of an object we need to obtain the mass and volume of the object by measurement. 2. Calculate volume for a cylinder The formula to calculate the volume of cylinder: = V πr2h (1) With:

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V: Volume of the object (cm 3 ) r : radius of cylinder base h : height of the cylinder With the relationship between diameter and radius: = d 2r Equation (1) could be written in the form of: = V πd2h4 3. Calculate density of an object The formula to calculate density = ρ mV With: ρ is the density of the object (g/cm 3 ) m is mass of the object (g) V is the bulk volume of the object (cm 3 ) II. Experience 2
1. Understanding the concept As the definition of density, it is essential to find mass and volume of the liquid. One of the most accurate ways to measure volume of a liquid is measure its containers. Pycnometers are design to contain a certain volume with the highest degree of precision. As finding the mass of the liquid, it is important to know the mass of the container, so the result when subtracts the mass of pycnometer with full of liquid by the mass of container is actually the mass of the liquid. 2. Calculate the density of the liquid As mentioned above, density of a liquid in this case has the formula: = - ρ C AV With: ρ is the density of the object (g/cm 3 ) C is the weight of the pycnometer with liqid (g) A is the weight of the pycnometer (g) V is the volume of liqid (cm 3) III. Experience 3 1. Understand the concept Archimedes said: “Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.” In another word the height of an object float on a fluid depend on the density of the object and the fluid. The height of the hydrometer, a glass tube whose density is calibrated, when it float on the fluid will be the density of the fluid. The reading is on °API. 2. Calculate the specific density with °API As gravity in °API has the formula:

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° = . - . API 141 5γ 131 5 1 Where °API is the gravity of the liquid (°API) γ is the specific gravity DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT I.
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