lab 4 - PGE 424 PETROPHYSICS PROF: M. M. SHARMA MEASUREMENT...

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PGE 424 PETROPHYSICS PROF: M. M. SHARMA MEASUREMENT AND ERROR ANALYSIS Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering The University of Texas Austin, Texas, 78712 PREPARE BY: BRADLEY W. NGUYEN
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CONTENTS TABLES
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3 SHORT SUMMARY In this lab, four cores were first measured for their lengths and diameters. I used the PERG- 300 Gas Permeameter to measure downstream pressures, and upstream pressures for four cores at varying flow rates. By letting the nitrogen passes through the pore spaces of the core samples, I was able to calculate gas permeability by using Darcy Laws and to create a graph of gas permeability versus the reciprocal of the mean pressure for all cores. Graphically, the gas permeability shows linear relationship to the inverse of mean pressure that relationship is known as Klinkenberg effect. The liquid permeabilies turned out to be unexpectedly higher than gas permeabilities. Experimental error was experienced when measured and recorded the data since the number on the digital clock constantly changed. In this lab, as working with high pressure when tried to force the gas went through the pore spaces, we took the pressure capacity of the permeameter as an important safety consideration. OBJECTIVE/GOAL This section includes a discussion of the overall objective of the lab. The purpose of this experiment was to use gas permeability to find Klinkenberg factor and effective liquid permeability of any core sample at varying pressure. Experimenters have to changed the flow rates of nitrogen on each sample five times to obtain the slope of gas permeability versus the inverse of mean pressure. The only equipment required to perform the lab is PERG-300, which I discus in the section below. BACKGROUND/THEORY Klinkenberg denotes that the data set of gas permeabilites can be used to find the permeabilites of liquid by constructing a plot of gas permeabilities. In order to perform the task of find liquid permeability of a core by using Klinkenberg method, I must calculate the gas permeability and the inverse of mean pressure. This section focuses on formula and theory which I used to complete this experiment.
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Unit Conversion On the PERG- 300, I was able to collect data for downstream and upstream pressure namely P d and P u , respectively. One of the most important factors for the success of this experiment bases entirely on unit conversion, because the mercury manometer measures gauge pressure, it is important to converse the unit into pressure in atm unit. Gauge pressure is defined as the difference between two pressures which were measured at two different points in a system. The formula to converse P d and P u into applicable P 1 and P 2 is: = + . . ( ) P1 Pu 14 714 7 atm Eqn. 1 = - . ( ) P2 P1 Pd14 7 atm Eqn. 2 = + ( ) PM Pu Pd2 atm Eqn. 3 Darcy Law I discuss in this section about the background information of gas permeability. Permeability is defined as the rate at which fluid or gas transmits through porous materials in Darcy unit. Gas permeability can be calculated bases on derivation of Darcy Laws:
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2010 for the course PGE 323K taught by Professor Lake during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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lab 4 - PGE 424 PETROPHYSICS PROF: M. M. SHARMA MEASUREMENT...

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