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Unformatted text preview: SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS PREFACE This section of instructor's resource materials contains solutions and answers to all problems and questions that appear in the textbook. My penmanship leaves something to be desired; therefore, I generated these solutions/answers using computer software so that the resulting product would be &quot;readable.&quot; Furthermore, I endeavored to provide complete and detailed solutions in order that: (1) the instructor, without having to take time to solve a problem, will understand what principles/skills are to be learned by its solution; and (2) to facilitate student understanding/learning when the solution is posted. I would recommend that the course instructor consult these solutions/answers before assigning problems and questions. In doing so, he or she ensures that the students will be drilled in the intended principles and concepts. In addition, the instructor may provide appropriate hints for some of the more difficult problems. With regard to symbols, in the text material I elected to boldface those symbols that are italicized in the textbook. Furthermore, I also endeavored to be consistent relative to symbol style. However, in several instances, symbols that appear in the textbook were not available, and it was necessary to make appropriate substitutions. These include the following: the letter a (unit cell edge length, crack length) is used in place of the cursive a . And Roman E and F replace script E (electric field in Chapter 18) and script F (Faraday's constant in Chapter 17), respectively. I have exercised extreme care in designing these problems/questions, and then in solving them. However, no matter how careful one is with the preparation of a work such as this, errors will always remain in the final product. Therefore, corrections, suggestions, and comments from instructors who use the textbook (as well as their teaching assistants) pertaining to homework problems/solutions are welcomed. These may be sent to me in care of the publisher. 1 CHAPTER 2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND INTERATOMIC BONDING PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 2.1 (a) When two or more atoms of an element have different atomic masses, each is termed an isotope . (b) The atomic weights of the elements ordinarily are not integers because: (1) the atomic masses of the atoms generally are not integers (except for 12 C), and (2) the atomic weight is taken as the weighted average of the atomic masses of an atom's naturally occurring isotopes. 2.2 Atomic mass is the mass of an individual atom, whereas atomic weight is the average (weighted) of the atomic masses of an atom's naturally occurring isotopes. 2.3 (a) In order to determine the number of grams in one amu of material, appropriate manipulation of the amu/atom, g/mol, and atom/mol relationships is all that is necessary, as # g/amu = 1 mol 6.023 x 10 23 atoms 1 g/mol 1 amu /atom = 1.66 x 10-24 g/amu (b) Since there are 453.6 g/lb m , 1 lb - mol = 453.6 g/lb m ( ) 6.023 x 10 6....
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- Spring '08