Ch1Objectives - E mb ryology Chapter 1 Lea rning Objectives...

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Embryology Chapter 1 Learning Objectives – Developmental Anatomy Define the six fundamental processes of development: 1. Fertilization - Fusion of the male and female gametes followed by the fusion of the haploid gamete nuclei to restore full complement of the chromosome characteristics of the species and initiation in the eggs cytoplasm of those reactions that permit development to proceed. 2. Cleavage - A series of mitotic cell divisions following fertilization in many early embryos; cleavage divides the embryo without increasing its mass. 3. Gastrulation - A process involving movement of the blastomeres of the embryo relative to one another resulting in formation of the 3 germ layers of the embryo. 4. Organogenesis - Interactions between, and rearrangement of, cells of 3 germ layers to produce tissues and organs. 5. Metamorphosis - Changing from one form to another, such as the transformation of an insect larva to a sexually mature adult.
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6. Gametogenesis - Production of gametes. Describe the major anatomical features of each developmental process (stage) using the frog life cycles as an example. -Gametogenesis: The yolk is transported into the bottom portion of the egg called vegetal hemisphere , where is serves as food for the developing embryo. (yolk filled cells are immobile) -In animal development, this stage occurs at a physical maturity to produce gametes. -Fertilization: The haploid nucleus of the egg merges with the haploid nucleus of the sperm forming the diploid zygote nucleus. This causes the cytoplasm of the egg to move and different parts of the cytoplasm will be in new locations. This migration is important in determining the 3 embryonic axes of frog: anterior-posterior (head, tail), dorsal-ventral (back, belly), and right and left. Activates molecules necessary to begin cleavage and gastrulation. -Cleavage: Volume of egg stays the same, but divided into thousands of cells.
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2010 for the course BIOS 7676 taught by Professor Sanders during the Spring '10 term at LA Tech.

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Ch1Objectives - E mb ryology Chapter 1 Lea rning Objectives...

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