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Unformatted text preview: Education Summary and Questions / Definitions 1. With industrialization and urbanization, the ability of the family to prepare its young for the future declined. As a result, formal schooling became necessary. The early emphasis in American schools was on civilizing the young; but after the turn of the twentieth century, the emphasis shifted to education for jobs. 2. Early schools were modified after businesses and have increasingly become more bureaucratic. Advocates of open classrooms and cooperative learning contend that bureaucratically run schools, fail to take into account the emotional and creative needs of individual children. The evidence suggests that some aspects of these alternatives provide benefits that should not be overlooks. The back-to-basics movement, however, seems to clash with the open classroom philosophy. 3. The debate over the best classroom methods has led to research for alternatives. Major competitors to the traditional public school are vouchers, charter schools, non-profit schools, and magnet schools. 4. Functionalists see the emergence of the educational institution as a response to societys needs. The manifest functions of education include the transmission of culture; social integration; selection and screening of talent; promotion of personal growth and development; and the dissemination, preservation, and creation of knowledge. Schools also serve latent functions. 5. America is supposed to be a meritocracy in which social status is achieved rather than determined by the family background. Advocates of the conflict perspective point to flaws in the meritocratic model, contending that the elite use the educational institution to preserve their privileged position. 6. Many of the flaws in the meritocratic model appear within the context of educational inequality, which exists when schooling produces different results for lower-class and minority children than it does for other children. Schools themselves promote educational inequality by reacting to students social class...
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- Spring '10