Final Exam Review - Final Exam Review Visualizations of the...

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Final Exam Review Visualizations of the Nervous System Computerized tomography (CT scan) Used for structural viewing Produces cross-sectional images of the brain Uses ionizing radiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Used for structural viewing Creates contrast between different types of tissues Also creates cross-sectional images of the body fMRI (functional) 3-D view of the brain Used to view brain activity Measures change in blood flow in the brain or spinal cord Positron emission tomography (PET scan) Used to view brain activity Metabolic activity (biochemistry taking place in an organ) Electroencephalogram (EEG) Used to view brain’s electrical activity Anatomical Terminology Dorsal- toward the back (top of the brain) Ventral- toward the stomach (bottom of the brain) Anterior-toward the front end (frontal brain) Posterior- toward the rear end (spinal cord) Horizontal plane- cannot see dorsal and ventral part of the brain Coronal plane-you cannot see the anterior and posterior part of the brain Sagittal plane- you cannot see the right and left part of the brain Major parts of the nervous system Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system Somatic nervous system Convey messages from sense organs to CNS and from CNS to muscles Respond to external environment Autonomic nervous system Respond to body’s internal environment Receive information from and send commands to heart, intestines, and other organs Each target organ receives opposing sympathetic and parasympathetic input Sympathetic Prepare organs for “fight or flight” response (arousal; mobilize energy)
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Increase breathing, increase heart rate, decrease digestive activity Ganglia arranged in a chain or act as a single system Pre-ganglionic cholinergic neurons and post-ganglionic noradrenergic neurons Parasympathetic (includes cranial nerves) Facilitates vegetative, nonemergency responses (relaxation; conserve energy) Decrease heart rate, increase digestive activity, decrease breathing Act more independently than sympathetic ganglia Pre-ganglionic cholinergic neurons and post-ganglionic cholinergic neurons Spinal Cord Communicates with all the sense organs and muscles except those of the head Entering dorsal roots carry sensory information Exiting ventral roots carry motor information Dorsal root ganglia Cell bodies of the sensory neurons outside the spinal cord Gray matter Densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites in the center of the cord White matter Myelinated axons that reach the brain or other parts of the spinal cord If the spinal cord is cut at a segment, brain loses sensation and motor control from that segment and below Cranial nerves Afferent and/or efferent nerves Hindbrain Posterior part of the brain where cranial nerves rise and axon crossing takes place
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course PSY 308 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Final Exam Review - Final Exam Review Visualizations of the...

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