Exam 4 Notes - Biopsychology Exam 4 Notes Lecture 1:...

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Biopsychology Exam 4 Notes Lecture 1: Neuroplasticity I Development of the Nervous System The nervous system begins to form when embryo is 2 weeks old Neural plate neural tube Neural plate folds upon itself and closes to form the neural tube Neural tube surrounds a fluid-filled cavity Neural tube sinks down and becomes the central canal of the spinal cord and the four ventricles of the brain containing CSF The forward end differentiates into the brain Stages of Development Neurogenesis Production of neurons Ventricular zone Neuroepithelial cells lining the ventricles of the brain divide to form glial cells and neurons Horizontal cleavage Vertical cleavage Migration and Aggregation Neurons and glial cells begin migrating to their final destinations Radial migration Neurons move from inside of the brain to the outside Somal translocation o The cell body is displaced from one area to another o Adequate for cells moving short distances Radial glial o Radial migration of neurons from the ventricular zone guided by a network of radial glial fibers Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) o Proteins involved in bindings cells with others cells or with extracellular matrix Tangential migration Neurons move along the surface of the brain o Interneurons migrate tangentially Differentiation Axon grows first and then dendrites after axon grows to its target Cortical neurons Neurons differentiate into six layers of cortex The cortical plate develops into six layers Cell autonomous Genetic Induction/Cell-cell interaction
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Environmental Basis of stem cell use Synaptogenesis The formation of synapses that continues throughout life Most occur post-natally during the first 5 years of life The stages of synaptogenesis 1. Filopodium 2. Pre-synaptic active zone 3. Post-synaptic receptor cluster Growth cone of an axon An actin-extension of a developing axon seeking its synaptic target cell Responds to positive or negative stimuli o Positive: chemoattractants o Negative: chemorepellents Apoptosis Programmed cell death Apoptosis occurs where there is competition for trophic factors Need neurotrophic factors for survival NGF- nerve growth factor BDNF- brain derived neurotrophic factor (most abundant in cerebral cortex) Neurotrophin-a chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons Target cells release neurotrophins via neurotransmitters How apoptosis takes place Increase in Ca 2+ influx Release of Diablo from mitochondrion Diablo binds to IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) IAP is no longer inhibiting caspases Caspases initiate protein and DNA destruction Synaptic Rearrangement Neurons rearrange their synapses with the target cell Initially a muscle is innervated by multiple neurons After maturation, one motor neuron innervates one muscle fiber
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course PSY 308 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Exam 4 Notes - Biopsychology Exam 4 Notes Lecture 1:...

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