Chapter 18 Notes - Chapter 18: Apoptosis Apoptosis...

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Chapter 18: Apoptosis Apoptosis -programmed cell death -cell dies neatly Necrosis -cells swell and burst, eliciting an inflammatory response Characteristic biochemical changes of apoptotic cells 1. DNA cleaved into fragments 2. phosphatidylserine flips from inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane 3. Loss of electrical potential across the inner membrane of mitochondria 4. Relocation of cytochrome c from intermembrane space of mitochondria to cytosol Caspase -inactive form is called procaspase -procaspase cleavage is catalyzed by active caspase -caspase composed of large and small subunits in a tetramer -activates other procaspase and cleaves target proteins -target proteins include nuclear lamins, endonuclase proteins, and cytoskeletal components Initiator caspases: caspases 2, 8, 9, 10 Executioner caspases: caspases 3, 6, 7 Extrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis -triggered by binding of extracellular signal proteins on death receptors -Fas ligand binds to Fas death receptor on the surface of a target cell
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Chapter 18 Notes - Chapter 18: Apoptosis Apoptosis...

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