Final Notes - Chapter 6 Learning an enduring change in...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 6 Learning – an enduring change in behavior that results from experience John Watson – supporter of behaviorism Ivan Pavlov – performed the dog salivation experiment using meat and the bell Classical conditioning - a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Unconditioned response – a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex; Ex: salivation elicited by food Unconditioned stimuli – a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning; Ex: the food Conditioned stimuli – a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place; Ex: the ringing of the bell Conditioned response – a response that has been learned; Ex: salivation after the ringing of the bell The CR (salivation b/c of bell) is always weaker than UR (salivation b/c of food). Acquisition – the initial learning of a behavior by associating CS and US Extinction – a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization – occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS produce the conditioned response Stimulus discrimination – a learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not. Phobia- is an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or a situation (Joseph Wolpe developed treatments such as counterconditioning) Biological preparedness – the idea that animals are biologically programmed to learn to fear specific objects (Martin Seligman) Delay between the CS and US is optimal for learning Rescorla-Wagner model – states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected. Operant conditioning – a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future (B.F. Skinner) Law of effect – states that any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is more likely to occur again (Thorndike) Skinner objected to subjective aspects of Thorndike’s law of effect. Reinforcer – is a stimulus that occurs following a response that increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated Shaping – a process of operant conditioning that involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior. Primary reinforcers – those that satisfy biological needs and are innately reinforcing Secondary reinforcers – events or objects that become reinforcers through their repeated pairings with primary reinforcers (making As, compliments, etc.) David Premack theorized that the value of a specific reinforcer could be determined by the amount of time an organism engages in that behavior and can be used to reinforce less valued activity
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course PSY 301 taught by Professor Pennebaker during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

Page1 / 6

Final Notes - Chapter 6 Learning an enduring change in...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online